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Washing and Heat Treatment of Aluminum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals to Optimize Phosphorus Sorption and Nitrogen Leaching: Considerations for Lake Restoration

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Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
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Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
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Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Health and Safety, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Changhui Wang
Water 2021, 13(18), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182465
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 6 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycle of Drinking Water Treatment Residues)
Drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) generated during drinking water treatment have been proposed for use in lake restoration as a solid-phase sorbent to inactivate phosphorus (P) in lake sediment. However, treatments that minimize leaching of nitrogen (N) and optimize P sorption capacity may be necessary prior to use. This study assessed seven different treatment methods, including washing and heat treatments at different temperatures and with and without oxygen limitation, among two DWTRs from Thailand. Results showed that oxygen-limited heat treatment at 600 °C substantially reduced N leaching (<0.2 mg/kg TKN) while also improving P sorption capacity (increase of 18–32% compared to untreated DWTR) to a maximum of 45.7 mg P/kg. Washing with deionized water reduced N leaching if a sufficient volume was used but did not improve P sorption. Heating at 200 °C with or without the presence of oxygen did not improve N leaching or P sorption. Regression of P sorption parameters from a two-surface Langmuir isotherm against physio-chemical properties indicated that oxalate-extractable (i.e., amorphous) aluminum and iron were significantly associated with total P sorption capacity (R2 = 0.94), but micropores and oxalate-extractable P modulated the P sorption from high-affinity to low-affinity mechanisms. In conclusion, this study confirmed the importance of amorphous aluminum in DWTRs for inactivating P, and the results suggest that high-temperature treatment under oxygen-limited conditions may be the most reliable way to optimize DWTRs for environmental remediation applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; alum sludge; binding efficiency; biochar; coagulant; eutrophication; oxidation; pyrolysis adsorption; alum sludge; binding efficiency; biochar; coagulant; eutrophication; oxidation; pyrolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuster, A.C.; Huser, B.J.; Padungthon, S.; Junggoth, R.; Kuster, A.T. Washing and Heat Treatment of Aluminum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals to Optimize Phosphorus Sorption and Nitrogen Leaching: Considerations for Lake Restoration. Water 2021, 13, 2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182465

AMA Style

Kuster AC, Huser BJ, Padungthon S, Junggoth R, Kuster AT. Washing and Heat Treatment of Aluminum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals to Optimize Phosphorus Sorption and Nitrogen Leaching: Considerations for Lake Restoration. Water. 2021; 13(18):2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182465

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuster, Anthony C., Brian J. Huser, Surapol Padungthon, Rittirong Junggoth, and Anootnara T. Kuster. 2021. "Washing and Heat Treatment of Aluminum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals to Optimize Phosphorus Sorption and Nitrogen Leaching: Considerations for Lake Restoration" Water 13, no. 18: 2465. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182465

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