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Article

Two Mechanisms of Earthquake-Induced Hydrochemical Variations in an Observation Well

by 1,*, 1, 1,2, 1, 1 and 3
1
China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China
2
Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
3
Yunnan Earthquake Agency, Kunming 650225, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Meixner
Water 2021, 13(17), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172385
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquakes and Groundwater)
Due to frequent large earthquakes in the Lanping-Simao fault basin—located in China’s Yunnan Province—the Simao observation well has observed groundwater discharge, as well as Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 concentrations every day between 2001–2018. Over 18 years of observations, M ≥ 5.6 earthquakes within a radius of 380 km from the well were seen to cause hydrochemical variations. In this study, we investigated CO2 release and groundwater mixing as possible causes of regional earthquake precursors, which were caused by the characteristics of the regional structure, lithology, water-rock reactions, and a GPS velocity field. Precursory signals due to CO2 injection are normally short-term changes that take two months. However, groundwater mixing linked to earthquakes was found to take, at the earliest, 15 months. The proportion of shallow water that contributes to mixing was found to significantly increase gradually with the stronger regional strain. These finding delineate the two mechanisms of earthquake-induced hydrochemical variations in an observation well, and would contribute to a better understanding of chemical changes before events in the Simao basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemistry; earthquake precursor; CO2 injection; groundwater mixing; long-term observation well hydrochemistry; earthquake precursor; CO2 injection; groundwater mixing; long-term observation well
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Z.; Zhong, J.; Zhao, J.; Yan, R.; Tian, L.; Fu, H. Two Mechanisms of Earthquake-Induced Hydrochemical Variations in an Observation Well. Water 2021, 13, 2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172385

AMA Style

Zhou Z, Zhong J, Zhao J, Yan R, Tian L, Fu H. Two Mechanisms of Earthquake-Induced Hydrochemical Variations in an Observation Well. Water. 2021; 13(17):2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172385

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Zhihua, Jun Zhong, Jing Zhao, Rui Yan, Lei Tian, and Hong Fu. 2021. "Two Mechanisms of Earthquake-Induced Hydrochemical Variations in an Observation Well" Water 13, no. 17: 2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172385

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