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Degradation of Trimethoprim Using the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Influencing Factors and Optimal Operating Conditions

1
School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110000, China
2
Institute of Innovational Education Research, Shenzhen Institute of Information Technology, Shenzhen 518000, China
3
Brook Byers Institute of Sustainable Systems, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giusy Lofrano and Raf Dewil
Water 2021, 13(12), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121656
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
Trimethoprim (TMP) is a pharmaceutical compound, which is commonly found in the water environment. The UV/chlorine process forms several reactive species, including hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and reactive chlorine species, to degrade contaminants. The influencing factors and the optimal operational conditions for the degradation of TMP by the UV/chlorine process were investigated. The degradation of TMP was much faster by the UV/chlorine process as compared to the UV alone or free chlorine alone process. A kinetic model was developed to simulate the degradation of TMP and determine the unknown rate constants. This study also predicted the relative contributions of each of the reactive species and photolysis using the developed kinetic model. It was found that the ClO• radical was the major reactant responsible for the degradation of TMP. Furthermore, the most important finding was the identification of the best operational conditions. The best operational conditions resulted in the lowest use of energy and electrical energy per order (EE/O), namely, (1) for the ultrapure water, the optimum intensity of the UV light and the free chlorine dosage were 2.56 Einstein/L·s and 0.064 mM, respectively, with a minimum EE/O of 0.136 kWh/m3; and (2) for the water matrix containing 3 mg/L NOM, the optimum intensity of the UV light and the free chlorine dosage were 3.45 Einstein/L s and 0.172 mM, respectively, with a minimum EE/O of 0.311 kWh/m3. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV/free chlorine; advanced oxidation; trimethoprim oxidation; reactive chlorine species UV/free chlorine; advanced oxidation; trimethoprim oxidation; reactive chlorine species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, Y.; Ran, Z.; Crittenden, J.C.; Zhang, W.; Wang, H. Degradation of Trimethoprim Using the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Influencing Factors and Optimal Operating Conditions. Water 2021, 13, 1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121656

AMA Style

Wang B, Zhang Q, Fu Y, Ran Z, Crittenden JC, Zhang W, Wang H. Degradation of Trimethoprim Using the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Influencing Factors and Optimal Operating Conditions. Water. 2021; 13(12):1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Bing, Qi Zhang, Yongdi Fu, Zhilin Ran, John C. Crittenden, Weiqiu Zhang, and Haipei Wang. 2021. "Degradation of Trimethoprim Using the UV/Free Chlorine Process: Influencing Factors and Optimal Operating Conditions" Water 13, no. 12: 1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121656

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