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The Past, Present, and Future of Phosphorus Removal Structures
Review

Field Scale Demonstration of Fly Ash Amended Bioretention Cells for Stormwater Phosphorus Removal: A Review of 12 Years of Work

1
Oklahoma Water Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
2
Bureau of Overseas Building Operations, US Department of State, Arlington, VA 22209, USA
3
Parsons Corp., Chicago, IL 60606, USA
4
Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Riccardo Scalenghe
Water 2021, 13(12), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121632
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
In 2007, ten bioretention cells were constructed in Oklahoma as part of a full-scale technology project to demonstrate stormwater phosphorus reduction. The filter media used was amended with 5%, Class C fly ash by weight to increase phosphorus and heavy metal retention. In 2014, core samples were collected from four of the cells, and three were instrumented for continuous water monitoring for the following year. This paper will review the design, construction, computer modeling of phosphorus retention, and measured phosphorus removal after seven years of operation. Total phosphorus retained in the sampled cells showed reductions in effluent water concentrations of 68 to 75%, while total effluent mass reductions of 51 to 93% were achieved. Total phosphorus accumulation in the cells measured in cores ranged from 0.33 to 0.60 kg/year, which was somewhat greater than the annual calculated effluent reduction of 0.27 to 0.41 kg/year. While good, phosphorus retention was not as high as computer modeling predicted. Other research on the cells, including hydraulics, heavy metal adsorption, and microbial transport, is summarized. Experimental challenges with phosphorus extraction from samples are also discussed. All experience and results suggest that fly ash amendments are an effective option for phosphorus removal in bioretention cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: filter media; water quality; extraction methods; core sampling; water sampling; Oklahoma filter media; water quality; extraction methods; core sampling; water sampling; Oklahoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vogel, J.R.; Chavez, R.A.; Kandel, S.; Brown, G.O. Field Scale Demonstration of Fly Ash Amended Bioretention Cells for Stormwater Phosphorus Removal: A Review of 12 Years of Work. Water 2021, 13, 1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121632

AMA Style

Vogel JR, Chavez RA, Kandel S, Brown GO. Field Scale Demonstration of Fly Ash Amended Bioretention Cells for Stormwater Phosphorus Removal: A Review of 12 Years of Work. Water. 2021; 13(12):1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121632

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vogel, Jason R., Rebecca A. Chavez, Saroj Kandel, and Glenn O. Brown 2021. "Field Scale Demonstration of Fly Ash Amended Bioretention Cells for Stormwater Phosphorus Removal: A Review of 12 Years of Work" Water 13, no. 12: 1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121632

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