Next Article in Journal
Stream Network Modeling Using Remote Sensing Data in an Alpine Cold Catchment
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainable, Decentralized Sanitation and Reuse with Hybrid Nature-Based Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design, Scaling, and Development of Biofilters with E crassipes for Treatment of Water Contaminated with Cr (VI)
Article

Nutrient Removal in Sequential Batch Polishing Ponds

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 58410 380, Brazil
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, 882-Universitário, Campina Grande 58428 830, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Mancini and Christos S. Akratos
Water 2021, 13(11), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111584
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Wastewater Treatment)
One of the main problems of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) is that they cannot remove nutrients when treating wastewater. Polishing ponds (PP) can efficiently remove nitrogen and phosphorus from effluents after efficient anaerobic pretreatment. It shown that the feasibility of nutrient removal is directly related to the pH that is established in the ponds. WSP normally operate at near neutral pH, but the biological processes that develop in PP tend to cause an elevation of pH and this, in turn, triggers the mechanisms of nutrient removal in ponds. In PP oxygen production by photosynthesis predominates over the oxidation of organic material. The net oxygen production has an equivalent CO2 consumption and this induces an increase in pH. The mechanism for nitrogen removal was identified as the desorption of ammonia from the liquid phase of the ponds. It was established that in ponds with a uniform concentration profile in the liquid phase the process developed in accordance with Fick’s law. The governing mechanism of phosphorus removal was precipitation with ions present in the wastewater, presumably calcium and magnesium. Polishing ponds can be operated with two different hydrodynamic regimes: flow-through (FTPP) and sequential batch (SBPP) ponds. The SBPP have the advantage that the pH elevation is more rapid, and that the final pH is higher. View Full-Text
Keywords: polishing pond; pH change; nutrient removal; flow-through and sequential batch regimes; ammonia desorption; phosphate precipitation polishing pond; pH change; nutrient removal; flow-through and sequential batch regimes; ammonia desorption; phosphate precipitation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

dos Santos, S.L.; van Haandel, A. Nutrient Removal in Sequential Batch Polishing Ponds. Water 2021, 13, 1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111584

AMA Style

dos Santos SL, van Haandel A. Nutrient Removal in Sequential Batch Polishing Ponds. Water. 2021; 13(11):1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111584

Chicago/Turabian Style

dos Santos, Silvânia L., and Adrianus van Haandel. 2021. "Nutrient Removal in Sequential Batch Polishing Ponds" Water 13, no. 11: 1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111584

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop