Next Article in Journal
Identifying Microbial Distribution Drivers of Archaeal Community in Sediments from a Black-Odorous Urban River—A Case Study of the Zhang River Basin
Previous Article in Journal
Flow Rate Measurement of Production Profile Logging Using Thermal Method
Article

Application of SWAT in Hydrological Simulation of Complex Mountainous River Basin (Part I: Model Development)

1
Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
2
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
3
Water Modeling Solutions Pvt. Ltd. (WMS), Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raghavan Srinivasan
Water 2021, 13(11), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111546
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) hydrological model has been used extensively by the scientific community to simulate varying hydro-climatic conditions and geo-physical environment. This study used SWAT to characterize the rainfall-runoff behaviour of a complex mountainous basin, the Budhigandaki River Basin (BRB), in central Nepal. The specific objectives of this research were to: (i) assess the applicability of SWAT model in data scarce and complex mountainous river basin using well-established performance indicators; and (ii) generate spatially distributed flows and evaluate the water balance at the sub-basin level. The BRB was discretised into 16 sub-basins and 344 hydrological response units (HRUs) and calibration and validation was carried out at Arughat using daily flow data of 20 years and 10 years, respectively. Moreover, this study carried out additional validation at three supplementary points at which the study team collected primary river flow data. Four statistical indicators: Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) and Kling Gupta efficiency (KGE) have been used for the model evaluation. Calibration and validation results rank the model performance as “very good”. This study estimated the mean annual flow at BRB outlet to be 240 m3/s and annual precipitation 1528 mm with distinct seasonal variability. Snowmelt contributes 20% of the total flow at the basin outlet during the pre-monsoon and 8% in the post monsoon period. The 90%, 40% and 10% exceedance flows were calculated to be 39, 126 and 453 m3/s respectively. This study provides additional evidence to the SWAT diaspora of its applicability to simulate the rainfall-runoff characteristics of such a complex mountainous catchment. The findings will be useful for hydrologists and planners in general to utilize the available water rationally in the times to come and particularly, to harness the hydroelectric potential of the basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrological simulation; SWAT; water balance; complex mountain; Budhigandaki hydrological simulation; SWAT; water balance; complex mountain; Budhigandaki
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marahatta, S.; Devkota, L.P.; Aryal, D. Application of SWAT in Hydrological Simulation of Complex Mountainous River Basin (Part I: Model Development). Water 2021, 13, 1546. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111546

AMA Style

Marahatta S, Devkota LP, Aryal D. Application of SWAT in Hydrological Simulation of Complex Mountainous River Basin (Part I: Model Development). Water. 2021; 13(11):1546. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111546

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marahatta, Suresh, Laxmi P. Devkota, and Deepak Aryal. 2021. "Application of SWAT in Hydrological Simulation of Complex Mountainous River Basin (Part I: Model Development)" Water 13, no. 11: 1546. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111546

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop