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Article

Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations

1
V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 43 Baltiiskaya Str., 690041 Vladivostok, Russia
2
Clinics of Functional Medicine “Manus”, 1-st Morskaya Str., 4, 690007 Vladivostok, Russia
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Institution of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 100-Years of Vladivostok Avenue, 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
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Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya Str., 5/1, 105005 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The author has passed away.
Academic Editor: Elmar C. Fuchs
Water 2021, 13(11), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111475
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
Homeopathy is one of the applications in structured water influencing human health. The objective is to search for the physical basis of homeopathy. This methodology includes a study of absorption in the far IR spectral range, absorption and refraction in THz diapason, dynamic light scattering in the UV–near IR spectral range for the blinded samples of homeopathic-like preparations (HLP) of several parent substances and hidden/apparent controls, and statistical analysis on the significance of distinctions in spectral data between ensembles of HLP of each parent substance and ensembles of hidden/apparent controls. The analysis of nine independent blind studies of aqueous HLP of several parent substances gave statistically significant spectral differences in some preparations with an apparent control (25 comparisons of 35) and a hidden control (11 comparisons of 40). The revealed dominance in the occurrence frequency of differences in any HLP with an apparent control can be treated as involving most of these changes to the samples by the spectral measuring process. This allows interpreting the main mechanism of manifestation of the spectral changes found as the “observer effect”. The therapeutic effect of HLP may be assumed as a combination of the “observer effect” from the physician side and a “placebo effect” from the patient side. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; spectral measurements; homeopathic-like preparations; blinded study; statistical analysis; physical interpretation; scientific basis water; spectral measurements; homeopathic-like preparations; blinded study; statistical analysis; physical interpretation; scientific basis
MDPI and ACS Style

Korenbaum, V.; Chernysheva, T.; Galay, V.; Galay, R.; Ustinov, A.; Zakharkov, S.; Bunkin, N. Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations. Water 2021, 13, 1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111475

AMA Style

Korenbaum V, Chernysheva T, Galay V, Galay R, Ustinov A, Zakharkov S, Bunkin N. Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations. Water. 2021; 13(11):1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Korenbaum, Vladimir, Tatiana Chernysheva, Victorya Galay, Roman Galay, Alexandr Ustinov, Sergei Zakharkov, and Nikolai Bunkin. 2021. "Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations" Water 13, no. 11: 1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111475

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