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Open AccessArticle

Relationship Between Aquifer Pumping Response and Quality of Water Extracted from Wells in an Active Hydrothermal System: The Case of the Island of Ischia (Southern Italy)

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
2
Acque Terme Ambiente, 80133 Napoli, Italy
3
Kataclima srl, 01019 Vetralla, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80126 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092576
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
The thermal waters of the Island of Ischia, an active volcano located in Southern Italy, are widely used for supplying numerous spas. Groundwater withdrawals occur mainly through wells in the coastal strip. This study explores the impact of withdrawals on the quality of the waters used in thermal facilities, which is required to be constant in terms of composition and temperature by law. For this purpose, specific investigations were conducted including 155 pumping tests, 124 water temperature measurements during pumping tests, 31 temperature and electrical conductivity logs and periodic chemical analysis of the waters of 21 selected wells. By comparing the response to pumping of the aquifer and the quality of the water extracted from the wells, it turned out that the quality of groundwater supplying spas depends not only on natural phenomena (meteoric recharge, seawater intrusion, and rising of deep hydrothermal fluids) but also relies on the island sector where groundwater is pumped and on the pumping method. The distance of the wells from the coast, the type of aquifer formation intersected by the wells, and the field of groundwater temperature of the hydrothermal system strongly affect the aquifer pumping response, determining the quality of water extracted from wells and its variation over time. In Ischia, techniques and regimes of groundwater withdrawals should adapt to the local aquifer pumping response, more than in another hydrogeological context. The concomitant analysis of drawdown, water temperature, and salinity during pumping turned out to be a valuable tool to define the sustainable yield of the single well. View Full-Text
Keywords: volcanic aquifer; pumping test; thermal water; Island of Ischia; intensive use of groundwater volcanic aquifer; pumping test; thermal water; Island of Ischia; intensive use of groundwater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piscopo, V.; Formica, F.; Lana, L.; Lotti, F.; Pianese, L.; Trifuoggi, M. Relationship Between Aquifer Pumping Response and Quality of Water Extracted from Wells in an Active Hydrothermal System: The Case of the Island of Ischia (Southern Italy). Water 2020, 12, 2576. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092576

AMA Style

Piscopo V, Formica F, Lana L, Lotti F, Pianese L, Trifuoggi M. Relationship Between Aquifer Pumping Response and Quality of Water Extracted from Wells in an Active Hydrothermal System: The Case of the Island of Ischia (Southern Italy). Water. 2020; 12(9):2576. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092576

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piscopo, Vincenzo; Formica, Fulvio; Lana, Luigi; Lotti, Francesca; Pianese, Luigi; Trifuoggi, Marco. 2020. "Relationship Between Aquifer Pumping Response and Quality of Water Extracted from Wells in an Active Hydrothermal System: The Case of the Island of Ischia (Southern Italy)" Water 12, no. 9: 2576. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092576

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