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Beyond Human Interventions on Complex Bays: Effects on Water and Wave Dynamics (Study Case Cádiz Bay, Spain)

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain
2
Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research, University of Granada, Avda. del Mediterráneo, s/n, 18006 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071907
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 3 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
Bays are coastal environments with significant socio-economic importance, which has led to the development of human interventions in their interior that can have an important impact on the water and wave dynamics, which in turn modify their morphodynamics and water renewal capacity. In order to deepen our understanding of these impacts, numerical modeling was used in a bay in southern Spain to analyze the effect of inner harbor expansion and channel deepening, including the baroclinic and wave propagation effects, as well as variations in salinity and temperature. The results show that the deepening of the channel decreases the amplitude and speed of the tidal wave as it propagates through the bay, reducing the effects of friction and increasing the flushing time. The system evolves from convergent to a damping system that can potentially reduce the effects produced by projected sea level rise. In addition, the seasonal variability of salinity and temperature is reduced, increasing the bed shear stresses and resulting in increased turbidity that can affect the biogeochemistry of the bay. Finally, wave heights decrease along the main waterway, although the yearly-average wave energy flux is only slightly modified on the interior beaches of the bay. However, significant variations are observed during storms, which could affect the morphodynamics of these beaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: human interventions; flushing time; numerical modeling; salinity; complex bays; salinity; temperature human interventions; flushing time; numerical modeling; salinity; complex bays; salinity; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarzuelo, C.; López-Ruiz, A.; Ortega-Sánchez, M. Beyond Human Interventions on Complex Bays: Effects on Water and Wave Dynamics (Study Case Cádiz Bay, Spain). Water 2020, 12, 1907. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071907

AMA Style

Zarzuelo C, López-Ruiz A, Ortega-Sánchez M. Beyond Human Interventions on Complex Bays: Effects on Water and Wave Dynamics (Study Case Cádiz Bay, Spain). Water. 2020; 12(7):1907. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071907

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zarzuelo, Carmen; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel. 2020. "Beyond Human Interventions on Complex Bays: Effects on Water and Wave Dynamics (Study Case Cádiz Bay, Spain)" Water 12, no. 7: 1907. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071907

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