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Open AccessArticle

The Blue Water Footprint of the Spanish Wine Industry: 1935–2015

1
Department of Economic Analysis, Universidad de Zaragoza, Gran Vía 2, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Department of Economic Analysis, Universidad de Zaragoza and Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (UNIZAR-CITA), Tarazanas 4, 44003 Teruel, Spain
3
Department of Economics, Universidad de Alcalá, Plaza de la Victoria 2, 28002 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
4
Department of Aplied Economics and Economic History, Universidad de Zaragoza and Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (UNIZAR-CITA), Gran Vía 2, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071872
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Water Trade and Water Resources Economics)
The impact of economic growth on natural resources and the environment constitutes a fundamental topic in current research. In particular, water, a fundamental resource for human beings, has been subject to intense pressure in recent decades. Within this context, this article examines the growth of the blue water footprint of the Spanish wine industry and its environmental impact. In order to do this, we will first calculate the blue water footprint of wine, using a bottom-up methodology. Our methodology introduces certain advances with respect to those usually used. Our results show a very fast increase of the blue water footprint from 1995, which has multiplied six-fold in twenty years with an extreme concentration in the region of Castilla-La Mancha, which accounts for 70% of this increase. The expansion of irrigated vine growing in this region has played a relevant role in the serious problems suffered by its aquifers. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue water footprint; wine production; water resource constraints; wine blue water footprint; Spanish wine industry blue water footprint; wine production; water resource constraints; wine blue water footprint; Spanish wine industry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ayuda, M.-I.; Esteban, E.; Martín-Retortillo, M.; Pinilla, V. The Blue Water Footprint of the Spanish Wine Industry: 1935–2015. Water 2020, 12, 1872.

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