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Article

Techno-Economic Analysis of RO Desalination of Produced Water for Beneficial Reuse in California

by 1,* and 1,2
1
Pacifica Water Solutions, Los Angeles, CA 91326, USA
2
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, California NanoSystems Institute and Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071850
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
There is approximately 508.7 million cubic meters (3.2 million barrels) of oilfield-produced water generated per year across the oil fields of California. While less than 2% of this produced water receives advanced treatment for beneficial reuse, changing regulations and increasing scarcity of freshwater resources is expected to increase the demand for beneficial reuse. This paper reviews onshore-produced water quality across California, relevant standards and treatment objectives for beneficial reuse, identifies contaminants of concern, and treatment process design considerations. Lastly, we evaluate the capital and operating costs of an integrated membrane system for treating produced water based on data from a field pilot conducted in the coastal region of California. View Full-Text
Keywords: produced water; water reuse; membranes; reverse osmosis; advanced treatment; high recovery desalination produced water; water reuse; membranes; reverse osmosis; advanced treatment; high recovery desalination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Edalat, A.; Hoek, E.M.V. Techno-Economic Analysis of RO Desalination of Produced Water for Beneficial Reuse in California. Water 2020, 12, 1850. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071850

AMA Style

Edalat A, Hoek EMV. Techno-Economic Analysis of RO Desalination of Produced Water for Beneficial Reuse in California. Water. 2020; 12(7):1850. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071850

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edalat, Arian, and Eric M. V. Hoek. 2020. "Techno-Economic Analysis of RO Desalination of Produced Water for Beneficial Reuse in California" Water 12, no. 7: 1850. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071850

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