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Article

Uptake of Sulfate from Ambient Water by Freshwater Animals

1
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
2
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
3
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
4
Pegasus Technical Services, Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051496
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Ecology Research for Water Quality Management)
To better understand how the sulfate (SO42−) anion may contribute to the adverse effects associated with elevated ionic strength or salinity in freshwaters, we measured the uptake and efflux of SO42− in four freshwater species: the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Teleostei: Cyprinidae), paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis, Bivalvia: Unionidae), red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Crustacea: Cambaridae), and two-lined mayfly (Hexagenia bilineata, Insecta: Ephemeridae). Using δ(34S/32S) stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of S and SO42−, we measured the SO42− influx rate (Jin), net flux (Jnet), and efflux rate (Jout) during a 24 h exposure period. For all four species, the means of Jin for SO42− were positive, and Jin was significantly greater than 0 at both target SO42− concentrations in the fish and mollusk and at the lower SO42− concentration in the crayfish. The means of Jout and Jnet were much more variable than those for Jin, but several species by target SO42− concentration combinations for Jout and Jnet, were negative, which suggests the net excretion of SO42− by the animals. The results of our experiments suggest a greater regulation of SO42− in freshwater animals than has been previously reported. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfate; freshwater; uptake; efflux; fish; invertebrates sulfate; freshwater; uptake; efflux; fish; invertebrates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Griffith, M.B.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Haring, H. Uptake of Sulfate from Ambient Water by Freshwater Animals. Water 2020, 12, 1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051496

AMA Style

Griffith MB, Lazorchak JM, Haring H. Uptake of Sulfate from Ambient Water by Freshwater Animals. Water. 2020; 12(5):1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051496

Chicago/Turabian Style

Griffith, Michael B., James M. Lazorchak, and Herman Haring. 2020. "Uptake of Sulfate from Ambient Water by Freshwater Animals" Water 12, no. 5: 1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051496

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