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Urban Multi-Source Water Supply in China: Variation Tendency, Modeling Methods and Challenges

1
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
4
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
5
School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
6
College of Water Resource Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041199
Received: 22 March 2020 / Revised: 17 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management: A Pragmatic Approach)
Urban water resources are the basis for the formation and development of cities and the source of urban water supply. However, with the acceleration of urbanization and the explosion of urban populations, the contradiction between water supply and demand in some areas, especially in big cities, has become increasingly prominent. It is simply not sufficient to rely on local conventional water resources to meet urban water demand, and a single source water supply mode has a higher vulnerability, resulting in greater safety risks in urban or regional water supply systems. Therefore, giving full play to the water supply capacity and carrying out multi-source water supplies are necessary and urgent. This paper gives an overview of the optimal allocation of multi-source for urban water supply concerning variation tendency, modeling methods and facing challenges. Based on the variation tendency of water consumption and water supply pattern in China, Tianjin is taken as a typical city for systematically outlining water supply changes and cause analysis. Subsequently, the modeling methods for proposing the optimal allocation scheme are summarized, which are composed of defining the topological relation, constructing the mathematical model and seeking the optimal solution. Ultimately, the current and emerging challenges are discussed including emergency operation of multi-source water supply and joint operation of water quality and quantity. These summaries and prospects provide a valuable reference for giving full play to the multi-source water supply capacity and carrying out relevant research so as to propose the optimal allocation scheme in urban multi-source water supply systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-source water supply; optimal allocation; modeling method; optimization model; common software; emergency operation; joint operation multi-source water supply; optimal allocation; modeling method; optimization model; common software; emergency operation; joint operation
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Song, P.; Wang, C.; Zhang, W.; Liu, W.; Sun, J.; Wang, X.; Lei, X.; Wang, H. Urban Multi-Source Water Supply in China: Variation Tendency, Modeling Methods and Challenges. Water 2020, 12, 1199.

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