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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Procedures for Water Demand Reconstruction

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Architettura, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via Ferrata 3, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 922;
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
This paper presents a comparison between two procedures for the generation of water demand time series at both single user and nodal scales, a top-down and a bottom-up procedure respectively. Both procedures are made up of two phases. The top-down procedure adopted includes a non-parametric disaggregation based on the K-nearest neighbours approach. Therefore, once the temporal aggregated water demand patterns have been defined (first phase), the disaggregation is used to generate water demand time series at lower levels of spatial aggregation (second phase). In the bottom-up procedure adopted, demand time series for each user and for each time step are generated applying a beta probability distribution with tunable bounds or a gamma distribution with shift parameter (first phase). Then, a Copula based re-sort is applied to the demand time series generated to impose existing rank cross-correlations between users and at all temporal lags (second phase). For the sake of comparison, two case studies were considered, both of which are related to a smart water network in Naples (Italy). The results obtained show that the bottom-up procedure performs significantly better than the top-down procedure in terms of rank-cross correlations at fine scale. However, the top-down procedure showed a better performance in terms of skewness and rank cross-correlation when the aggregated demands were considered. Finally, the level of aggregation in nodes was found to affect the performance of both the procedures considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: top-down approach; bottom-up approach; water distribution network; smart meters top-down approach; bottom-up approach; water distribution network; smart meters
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Fiorillo, D.; Creaco, E.; De Paola, F.; Giugni, M. Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Procedures for Water Demand Reconstruction. Water 2020, 12, 922.

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