Next Article in Journal
Sensitivity Analysis of a Groundwater Infiltration Model and Sea-Level Rise Applications for Coastal Sewers
Next Article in Special Issue
Hydropower Generation Through Pump as Turbine: Experimental Study and Potential Application to Small-Scale WDN
Previous Article in Journal
Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of Media Layers in Bioretention
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Transfer from the Freshwater to the Wastewater Network Using a PAT-Equipped Turbopump
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Procedures for Water Demand Reconstruction

1
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Architettura, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via Ferrata 3, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030922
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
This paper presents a comparison between two procedures for the generation of water demand time series at both single user and nodal scales, a top-down and a bottom-up procedure respectively. Both procedures are made up of two phases. The top-down procedure adopted includes a non-parametric disaggregation based on the K-nearest neighbours approach. Therefore, once the temporal aggregated water demand patterns have been defined (first phase), the disaggregation is used to generate water demand time series at lower levels of spatial aggregation (second phase). In the bottom-up procedure adopted, demand time series for each user and for each time step are generated applying a beta probability distribution with tunable bounds or a gamma distribution with shift parameter (first phase). Then, a Copula based re-sort is applied to the demand time series generated to impose existing rank cross-correlations between users and at all temporal lags (second phase). For the sake of comparison, two case studies were considered, both of which are related to a smart water network in Naples (Italy). The results obtained show that the bottom-up procedure performs significantly better than the top-down procedure in terms of rank-cross correlations at fine scale. However, the top-down procedure showed a better performance in terms of skewness and rank cross-correlation when the aggregated demands were considered. Finally, the level of aggregation in nodes was found to affect the performance of both the procedures considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: top-down approach; bottom-up approach; water distribution network; smart meters top-down approach; bottom-up approach; water distribution network; smart meters
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fiorillo, D.; Creaco, E.; De Paola, F.; Giugni, M. Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Procedures for Water Demand Reconstruction. Water 2020, 12, 922.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop