A New Method for the Evaluation of Well Rehabilitation from the Early Portion of a Pumping Test
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Real Wells
- By the clogging of pores (s1) with, e.g., a fine material, which reduces the flow rate of the porous environment or disrupts the original internal structure of the porous environment in the vicinity of the wellbore during digging and equipping (it decreases the porous environment’s permeability) in rotary drilling, the result of which is so-called sludge bark; in the case of impact drilling, the porous environment in the vicinity of the well is compacted, thereby reducing throughput [52,53,54].
- Through a reduction in the wellbore wall cross-section (s2) for the water inflow where the borehole wall is formed by a filter, perforated casing, etc., by trapping rock particles or backfill in filter openings, including chemical incrustation and the blockage of filter openings by microorganisms and bacteria [55,56,57].
- Via the friction (s3) of water on the borehole walls and its internal friction (this group also includes the additional resistance arising from the turbulent flow regime of the water inside the borehole and the turbulent flow in the aquifer, especially in the vicinity of the pumping well.
- Where appropriate, other types of additional resistance occur.
2.2. Deriving the New Correlation to Evaluate the Skin Factor from the First Straight Line
- The gravitational forces are negligible;
- A constant density and viscosity of water;
- The aquifer has an infinite areal extent;
- The pumping well penetrates the full thickness of the aquifer;
- The flow to the pumping well is horizontal;
- The flow is unsteady;
- The diameter of a pumping well is very small (negligible), allowing the storage in the well to be neglected;
- The well is pumped with constant rate Q;
- The aquifer is horizontal and bounded on the bottom and top by impermeable layers (a confined aquifer);
- The aquifer flow to the pumped well is radial and laminar, so Darcy’s law is applied;
- The confined aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic;
- The height of an aquifer (where the flow to the well is constant and has a size b transmissivity, T, and storability (aquifer storage), S) is constant over time and space;
- The water supply from the aquifer to the well changes during the pumping test from Qaq = 0 to the final inflow, Qaq = Q = const.;
- Before pumping begins (i.e., for t = 0), the hydraulic head is constant in all points of the aquatic environment and equals H; this also applies to the water level at a well.
- The well possesses its final volume, and, at the beginning of pumping, the effect of the water volume in the wellbore influences the drawdown and must be considered;
- The wellbore storage coefficient is constant and does not change during pumping;
- The influence of additional resistance occurring in the wellbore itself and in its immediate vicinity is considered (the width of the perpendicular zone can reach up to about 2–7 m).
Field Test: Rehabilitation of the Dug S-V well—Veselí Nad Lužnicí
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|CD||1 × 102||5 × 102||1 × 103||5 × 103||1 × 104||5 × 104||1 × 105||5 × 105||1 × 106||5 × 106|
|1||1.0 × 102||0.6448|
|2||5.0 × 102||0.7690|
|3||1.0 × 103||0.8420|
|4||5.0 × 103||0.9754|
|5||1.0 × 104||1.0375|
|6||5.0 × 104||1.1689|
|7||1.0 × 105||1.2325|
|8||5.0 × 105||1.3644|
|9||1.0 × 106||1.4272|
|10||5.0 × 106||1.5581|
|11||1.0 × 107||1.6195|
|N.||Time t(s)||Drawdown s (m)||Time t(s)||Drawdown s(m)||N.||Time t(s)||Drawdown s(m)|
|Before Rehabilitation||After Rehabilitation||1 Year after Rehabilitation|
|Pumping rate, Q (m3·s−1)||0.00335||0.0037||0.00352|
|Pumping test duration (s)||400,000||72,000||80,000|
|New method (Equation (34))||47||6.8||10.8|
|Cooper–Jacob method (Equation (16))||51||7.9||12|
|Additional drawdown sskin (Equation (12))||3.51||0.56||0.85|
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Kahuda, D.; Pech, P. A New Method for the Evaluation of Well Rehabilitation from the Early Portion of a Pumping Test. Water 2020, 12, 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030744
Kahuda D, Pech P. A New Method for the Evaluation of Well Rehabilitation from the Early Portion of a Pumping Test. Water. 2020; 12(3):744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030744Chicago/Turabian Style
Kahuda, Daniel, and Pavel Pech. 2020. "A New Method for the Evaluation of Well Rehabilitation from the Early Portion of a Pumping Test" Water 12, no. 3: 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030744