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Open AccessArticle

Low Trihalomethane Formation during Managed Aquifer Recharge with Chlorinated Desalinated Water

1
The Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sde Boker Campus 8499000, Israel
2
Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel
3
Mekorot, Water Company Ltd., Tel Aviv 6713402, Israel
4
Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
5
Institute IWAR, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030711
Received: 25 January 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are toxic disinfection by-products, formed in the reaction of chlorine with organic matter. This work aimed to study THM formation during a unique case study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with chlorinated desalinated seawater. THM formation was tested in the field, along a 3.0 m deep vadose zone gallery. Two small-scale experiments were conducted in the site, with untreated and with bromide spiked desalinated seawater. These were accompanied by a large-scale, ~1-month long operational MAR event. In the small-scale experiments, THM concentrations were shown to increase with bromide concentrations, with increasing dominance of the brominated species. Nevertheless, concentrations remained within the single µg/L range, which is an order of magnitude lower than drinking water regulations. Such low THM concentrations were also determined in the large-scale event. In both cases, THM formation occurred in the ponding water, without significant formation or degradation in the upper 3.0 m of the vadose zone. This study shows that MAR with chlorinated (<0.5 mg/L) desalinated seawater through sandy infiltration basins does not pose a threat to drinking water quality at this site. View Full-Text
Keywords: MAR; disinfection by-products; THMs; aquifer storage MAR; disinfection by-products; THMs; aquifer storage
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Bernstein, A.; Studny, R.; Shyntychea, V.; Kurtzman, D.; Ganot, Y.; Katz, Y.; Asfaw, B.A.; Sakaguchi-Söder, K.; Schüth, C.; Siebner, H. Low Trihalomethane Formation during Managed Aquifer Recharge with Chlorinated Desalinated Water. Water 2020, 12, 711.

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