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Open AccessArticle

Low Trihalomethane Formation during Managed Aquifer Recharge with Chlorinated Desalinated Water

The Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sde Boker Campus 8499000, Israel
Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel
Mekorot, Water Company Ltd., Tel Aviv 6713402, Israel
Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Institute IWAR, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 711;
Received: 25 January 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are toxic disinfection by-products, formed in the reaction of chlorine with organic matter. This work aimed to study THM formation during a unique case study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with chlorinated desalinated seawater. THM formation was tested in the field, along a 3.0 m deep vadose zone gallery. Two small-scale experiments were conducted in the site, with untreated and with bromide spiked desalinated seawater. These were accompanied by a large-scale, ~1-month long operational MAR event. In the small-scale experiments, THM concentrations were shown to increase with bromide concentrations, with increasing dominance of the brominated species. Nevertheless, concentrations remained within the single µg/L range, which is an order of magnitude lower than drinking water regulations. Such low THM concentrations were also determined in the large-scale event. In both cases, THM formation occurred in the ponding water, without significant formation or degradation in the upper 3.0 m of the vadose zone. This study shows that MAR with chlorinated (<0.5 mg/L) desalinated seawater through sandy infiltration basins does not pose a threat to drinking water quality at this site. View Full-Text
Keywords: MAR; disinfection by-products; THMs; aquifer storage MAR; disinfection by-products; THMs; aquifer storage
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Bernstein, A.; Studny, R.; Shyntychea, V.; Kurtzman, D.; Ganot, Y.; Katz, Y.; Asfaw, B.A.; Sakaguchi-Söder, K.; Schüth, C.; Siebner, H. Low Trihalomethane Formation during Managed Aquifer Recharge with Chlorinated Desalinated Water. Water 2020, 12, 711.

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