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Open AccessArticle

Importance of Precipitation on the Upper Ocean Salinity Response to Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014)

by Fu Liu 1,2, Han Zhang 2,3,*, Jie Ming 1,4,*, Jiayu Zheng 5, Di Tian 2 and Dake Chen 2,3
Key Laboratory of Mesoscale Severe Weather/MOE and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
Joint Center for Atmospheric Radar Research of Centre of Modern Analysis/Nanjing University (CMA/NJU), Nanjing 210023, China
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 614;
Received: 8 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 24 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Using multiple-satellite datasets, in situ observations, and numerical simulations, the influence of typhoon-induced precipitation on the oceanic response to Typhoon Kalmaegi has been discussed. It is found that the convective system and precipitation distribution of Kalmaegi was asymmetric, which leaded to the asymmetric rainfall at observational stations. The sea surface salinity (SSS) of the buoy to the right of storm track increased with a 0.176 practical salinity units (psu) maximal positive anomaly, while the two buoys on the left side underwent several desalination processes, with a maximum decreases of 0.145 psu and 0.278 psu. Numerical simulations with and without precipitation forcing were also performed. Model results showed that typhoon-induced precipitation can weaken sea surface cooling by approximately 0.03–0.40 °C and suppress the SSS increase by approximately 0.074–0.152 psu. The effect of precipitation can be divided into the direct effect and indirect effect. On one hand, freshwater from precipitation directly dilutes the salinity. On the other hand, when salinity decreases, the ocean stratification will be enhanced, the vertical mixing will be restrained, and then the temperature and salinity can be further affected by weakened vertical mixing. View Full-Text
Keywords: typhoon; precipitation; ocean response; satellite; numerical simulations typhoon; precipitation; ocean response; satellite; numerical simulations
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Liu, F.; Zhang, H.; Ming, J.; Zheng, J.; Tian, D.; Chen, D. Importance of Precipitation on the Upper Ocean Salinity Response to Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014). Water 2020, 12, 614.

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