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Open AccessArticle

Debris Flow Generation Based on Critical Discharge: A Case Study of Xiongmao Catchment, Southwestern China

State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 552;
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Debris Flows Research: Hazard and Risk Assessments)
Generation of debris flows is related to poorly sorted mixtures of soil, catchment topography, and rainfall characteristics. Runoff in a valley resulting from intensive rainfall can induce sediment movement within stream beds or along adjacent banks. The water flow in channels is affected by rainfall parameters such as duration, intensity, cumulative rainfall, etc., and is the key factor in debris movement. In this paper, the rainfall characteristics and occurrence conditions of debris flow in Xiongmao Gully on 26 July 2016 were explored. Using data from field surveys and indoor simulation experiments, evaluations of critical discharge parameters for debris movement were performed. Furthermore, debris distribution and the critical discharge characteristics were analyzed via investigation of the catchment topography and cause of the debris flow, and analysis was made of the critical discharge parameters initiating channel debris movement. A K-value clustering analysis method was applied to characterize the rainfall pattern of the study area and its effects on calculation of debris flow. The results showed that for the debris flow in Xiongmao Gully, the debris initiation in the middle reaches of the gully provided the majority of solid particles for the disaster on 26 July 2016, and the upstream confluent provided catchment. Based on the relationship determined by laboratory tests, the calculated critical discharge was 43.8 m3/s, less than the peak discharge (Qc = 66.7 m3/s) calculated by morphological method. In addition, it was indicated that the dominant rainfall patterns of the studied area were first-quartile and second-quartile, i.e., the rainfall occurred primarily at the early or middle stage of this rainfall event. The critical discharge for the debris flow on 26 July was achieved at 5% rainfall frequency, and the larger runoff volume was generated from a short heavy rainfall. According to specific catchment characteristics, such as distributed hydrological analysis, critical discharge, and rainfall pattern of debris flow, forewarning of a damaging debris flow could be made more effective. View Full-Text
Keywords: debris flow initiation; critical discharge; rainfall patterns; distributed hydrological debris flow initiation; critical discharge; rainfall patterns; distributed hydrological
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Gong, L.; Tang, C.; Xiong, J.; Li, N. Debris Flow Generation Based on Critical Discharge: A Case Study of Xiongmao Catchment, Southwestern China. Water 2020, 12, 552.

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