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Open AccessArticle

Reconstructing Six Decades of Surface Temperatures at a Shallow Lake

State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, QLD 4111 Nathan, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 405;
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) plays a fundamental role in the lake energy budget. However, direct observations of LSWT require considerable effort for acquisition and hence are rare relative to a large number of lakes. In lakes where LSWT has not been covered sufficiently by in situ measurements, remote sensing and lake modeling can be used to produce a fine spatio-temporal record of LSWTs. In our study, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LSWT was used to compare with in situ data at the overpass times over the six sites in Lake Chaohu, a large shallow lake in China. MODIS-derived LSWT reflected the variation of lake surface temperature well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.96 and a cool bias of 1.25 °C. The bias was modified by an “Upper Envelop” smoothing method and then employed to evaluate the general lake model (GLM) performance, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The GLM simulations showed good performance compared with MODIS LSWT data at an interannual time scale. A 57-year record of simulated LSWT was hindcast by the well-calibrated GLM for Lake Chaohu. The results showed that LSWT decreased by 0.08 °C/year from 1960 to 1981 and then increased by 0.05 °C/year. These trends were most likely caused by a cooling effect of decreased surface incident solar radiation and a warming effect of reduced wind speed. Our study promoted the use of MODIS-derived LSWT as an alternative data source, and then combined with a numerical model for inland water surface temperature, and also further provided an understanding of climate warming effect on such a shallow eutrophic lake. Key points: (1) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) lake water surface temperature (LSWT) was validated with real-time in situ data collected at Lake Chaohu with high accuracy; (2) MODIS LSWT was modified by the bias correction and employed to evaluate a one-dimensional lake model at interannual and intraannual scale; The LSWT hindcast by a well-calibrated model at Lake Chaohu decreased by 0.08 °C/year from 1960 to 1981 and increased by 0.05 °C/year from 1982 to 2016. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake water surface temperature; MODIS; lake modeling; climate change lake water surface temperature; MODIS; lake modeling; climate change
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Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Frassl, M.A.; Boehrer, B. Reconstructing Six Decades of Surface Temperatures at a Shallow Lake. Water 2020, 12, 405.

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