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Article

An Integrated Use of GIS, Geostatistical and Map Overlay Techniques for Spatio-Temporal Variability Analysis of Groundwater Quality and Level in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, South Asia

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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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Department of Land and Water Conservation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
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Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, University of Engineering &Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
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Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
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Agricultural Engineering Department, (Field Wing) Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus 61100, Pakistan
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Department of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan 32200, Pakistan
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State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
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Institute of Water Problems, Hydropower and Ecology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe 734042, Tajikistan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123555
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 17 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Background Levels in Groundwater)
The rapidly changing climatic scenario is demanding periodic evaluation of groundwater quality at the temporal and spatial scale in any region for its effectual management. The statistical, geographic information system (GIS), geostatistical, and map overlay approaches were applied for investigating the spatio-temporal variation in groundwater quality and level data of 242 monitoring wells in Punjab, Pakistan during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of the years 2015 and 2016. The analysis indicated the higher variation in data for both the seasons (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon) as coefficient of variation (CV) values were found in the range of 84–175% for groundwater quality parameters. Based on the t-test values, the marginal improvement in groundwater electrical conductivity (EC), sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and decrease in groundwater level (GWL) were observed in 2016 as compared to 2015 (p = 0.05). The spatial distribution analysis of groundwater EC, SAR and RSC indicated that the groundwater quality was unfit for irrigation in the lower south-east part of the study area. The groundwater level (GWL) was also higher in that part of the study area during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2015 and 2016. The overlay analysis also indicated that the groundwater EC, RSC and GWL values were higher in south-east parts of the study area during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of 2015 and 2016. Hence, there is an instant need to apply groundwater management practices in the rest of the region (especially in the lower south-east part) to overcome the future degradation of groundwater quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater quality; groundwater level; geostatistics; t-test; spatial distribution modeling groundwater quality; groundwater level; geostatistics; t-test; spatial distribution modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahzad, H.; Farid, H.U.; Khan, Z.M.; Anjum, M.N.; Ahmad, I.; Chen, X.; Sakindar, P.; Mubeen, M.; Ahmad, M.; Gulakhmadov, A. An Integrated Use of GIS, Geostatistical and Map Overlay Techniques for Spatio-Temporal Variability Analysis of Groundwater Quality and Level in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, South Asia. Water 2020, 12, 3555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123555

AMA Style

Shahzad H, Farid HU, Khan ZM, Anjum MN, Ahmad I, Chen X, Sakindar P, Mubeen M, Ahmad M, Gulakhmadov A. An Integrated Use of GIS, Geostatistical and Map Overlay Techniques for Spatio-Temporal Variability Analysis of Groundwater Quality and Level in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, South Asia. Water. 2020; 12(12):3555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123555

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shahzad, Huzaifa; Farid, Hafiz U.; Khan, Zahid M.; Anjum, Muhammad N.; Ahmad, Ijaz; Chen, Xi; Sakindar, Perviaz; Mubeen, Muhammad; Ahmad, Matlob; Gulakhmadov, Aminjon. 2020. "An Integrated Use of GIS, Geostatistical and Map Overlay Techniques for Spatio-Temporal Variability Analysis of Groundwater Quality and Level in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, South Asia" Water 12, no. 12: 3555. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123555

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