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Article

Quality and Health Risk Assessment Associated with Water Consumption—A Case Study on Karstic Springs

1
INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath Street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Technical University, 103-105 Muncii Boulevard, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Manastur Street, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Geospeleology and Paleontology, Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology, Calea 13 Septembrie 13, 050711 Bucharest, Romania
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Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology, Clinicilor 5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3510; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123510
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Karst Eco-Hydrology and Sediment)
In rural areas without centralized water supply systems, inhabitants often use groundwater of unknown quality as drinking water, without understanding the possible negative consequences on their health. Karstic spring waters from Dobrogea region in Romania were assessed for their potential to be used as drinking water source, according to their quality and seasonal variation. The physico-chemical parameters of waters were compared with the guideline values for drinking water established by the World Health Organization and the Directive 98/83/EC. The nitrate and Cr concentrations exceeded the guideline value in the springs from Southern Dobrogea, but met the quality criteria in those from Northern Dobrogea, thus, to be used as drinking water, the karstic springs located in Southern Dobrogea require treatment for nitrates removal. Heavy metals pollution indices showed low to medium cumulative heavy metal pollution in all springs, while the human health risk assessment by oral exposure indicated possible noncarcinogenic risks of nitrates, both for adults and children in springs from South Dobrogea. A rigorous monitoring of the water quality before human consumption is recommended for all four studied water sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: karstic springs; drinking water quality; nitrate; health risk assessment; metal pollution indices; Dobrogea; Romania karstic springs; drinking water quality; nitrate; health risk assessment; metal pollution indices; Dobrogea; Romania
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moldovan, A.; Hoaghia, M.-A.; Kovacs, E.; Mirea, I.C.; Kenesz, M.; Arghir, R.A.; Petculescu, A.; Levei, E.A.; Moldovan, O.T. Quality and Health Risk Assessment Associated with Water Consumption—A Case Study on Karstic Springs. Water 2020, 12, 3510. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123510

AMA Style

Moldovan A, Hoaghia M-A, Kovacs E, Mirea IC, Kenesz M, Arghir RA, Petculescu A, Levei EA, Moldovan OT. Quality and Health Risk Assessment Associated with Water Consumption—A Case Study on Karstic Springs. Water. 2020; 12(12):3510. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moldovan, Ana, Maria-Alexandra Hoaghia, Eniko Kovacs, Ionuț C. Mirea, Marius Kenesz, Răzvan A. Arghir, Alexandru Petculescu, Erika A. Levei, and Oana T. Moldovan 2020. "Quality and Health Risk Assessment Associated with Water Consumption—A Case Study on Karstic Springs" Water 12, no. 12: 3510. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123510

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