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Article

Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Head Loss of a Pressure Driven Flow through an Unlined Rock-Blasted Tunnel

1
Division of Hydraulic Engineering and River Morphology, Leichtweiß Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Beethovenstr. 51a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), S.P. Andersens veg 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
3
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Universitetstunet 3, 1433 Ås, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3492; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123492
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Hydropower)
The friction loss in a part of the rock-blasted unlined tunnel of the Litjfossen hydropower plant in Norway was determined from experimental and numerical studies. Remote sensing data from the prototype tunnel provided the input data for both the numerical model and the construction of a 1:15 scale model with an innovative milling approach. The numerical simulations were based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations using the CFD program OpenFoam. Head loss measurements in the scale model were carried out by means of pressure measurements for a range of discharges and were compared against the results of the numerical model. The measured data were used to determine the Darcy–Weisbach and Manning friction factors of the investigated tunnel reach. The high-resolution remote sensing data were also used to test the applicability of existing approaches to determine the friction factor in unlined rock blasted tunnels. The results of the study show the usefulness of the chosen hybrid approach of experimental investigations and numerical simulations and that existing approaches for the determination of head losses in unlined tunnels need to be further refined. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydropower; rock-blasted tunnel; scale model; flow resistance; head loss; hydraulic roughness; experiments hydropower; rock-blasted tunnel; scale model; flow resistance; head loss; hydraulic roughness; experiments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aberle, J.; Henry, P.-Y.; Kleischmann, F.; Navaratnam, C.U.; Vold, M.; Eikenberg, R.; Olsen, N.R.B. Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Head Loss of a Pressure Driven Flow through an Unlined Rock-Blasted Tunnel. Water 2020, 12, 3492. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123492

AMA Style

Aberle J, Henry P-Y, Kleischmann F, Navaratnam CU, Vold M, Eikenberg R, Olsen NRB. Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Head Loss of a Pressure Driven Flow through an Unlined Rock-Blasted Tunnel. Water. 2020; 12(12):3492. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123492

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aberle, Jochen; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kleischmann, Fabian; Navaratnam, Christy U.; Vold, Mari; Eikenberg, Ralph; Olsen, Nils R.B. 2020. "Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Head Loss of a Pressure Driven Flow through an Unlined Rock-Blasted Tunnel" Water 12, no. 12: 3492. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123492

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