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Article

Genome-Resolved Metagenomics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Analysis in Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems

Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
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Water 2020, 12(12), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123477
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Water reuse is increasingly pursued to alleviate global water scarcity. However, the wastewater treatment process does not achieve full removal of biological contaminants from wastewater, hence microorganisms and their genetic elements can be disseminated into the reclaimed water distribution systems (RWDS). In this study, reclaimed water samples are investigated via metagenomics to assess their bacterial diversity, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) at both point of entry (POE) and point of use (POU) in 3 RWDS. The number of shared bacterial orders identified by metagenome was higher at the POE than POU among the three sites, indicating that specific conditions in RWDS can cause further differentiation in the microbial communities at the end of the distribution system. Two bacterial orders, namely Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales, had high replication rates in two of the examined RWDS (i.e., site A and B), and were present in higher relative abundance in POU than at POE. In addition, MAG and ARG relative abundance exhibited a strong correlation (R2 = 0.58) in POU, indicating that bacteria present in POU may have a high incidence of ARG. Specifically, resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanisms (e.g., adeF and qacH) increased in its relative abundance from POU to POE at two of the RWDS (i.e., site A and B). When correlated with the water quality data that suggests a significantly lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at site D than the other two RWDS, the metagenomic data suggest that low DOC is needed to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water along the distribution network. View Full-Text
Keywords: water reclamation; metagenomics; water microbiome; antibiotic resistance water reclamation; metagenomics; water microbiome; antibiotic resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Hong, P.-Y. Genome-Resolved Metagenomics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Analysis in Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems. Water 2020, 12, 3477. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123477

AMA Style

Wang C, Hong P-Y. Genome-Resolved Metagenomics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Analysis in Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems. Water. 2020; 12(12):3477. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123477

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Changzhi; Hong, Pei-Ying. 2020. "Genome-Resolved Metagenomics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Analysis in Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems" Water 12, no. 12: 3477. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123477

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