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Article

Impact of Water Deficit on Seasonal and Diurnal Dynamics of European Beech Transpiration and Time-Lag Effect between Stand Transpiration and Environmental Drivers

1
Department of Natural Environment, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia
2
Oikos NGO, Environmental Laboratory, Na Karasíny 247/21, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovakia
3
National Forest Centre, Forest Research Institute, T.G. Masaryka 22, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia
4
Environmental Measuring Systems, Ltd., Kociánka 85/39, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123437
Received: 17 September 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
In-situ measurements of tree sap flow enable the analysis of derived forest transpiration and also the water state of the entire ecosystem. The process of water transport (by sap flow) and transpiration through vegetation organisms are strongly influenced by the synergistic effect of numerous external factors, some of which are predicted to alter due to climate change. The study was carried out by in-situ monitoring sap flow and related environmental factors in the years 2014 and 2015 on a research plot in Bienska dolina (Slovakia). We evaluated the relationship between derived transpiration of the adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest stand, environmental conditions, and soil water deficit. Seasonal beech transpiration (from May to September) achieved 59% of potential evapotranspiration (PET) in 2014 and 46% in 2015. Our study confirmed that soil water deficit leads to a radical limitation of transpiration and fundamentally affects the relationship between transpiration and environmental drivers. The ratio of transpiration (E) against PET was significantly affected by a deficit of soil water and in dry September 2015 decreased to the value of 0.2. The maximum monthly value (0.8) of E/PET was recorded in August and September 2014. It was demonstrated that a time lag exists between the course of transpiration and environmental factors on a diurnal basis. An application of the time lags within the analysis increased the strength of the association between transpiration and the variables. However, the length of these time lags changed in conditions of soil drought (on average by 25 min). Transpiration is driven by energy income and connected evaporative demand, provided a sufficient amount of extractable soil water. A multiple regression model constructed from measured global radiation (RS), air temperature (AT), and air humidity (RH) explained 69% of the variability in beech stand transpiration (entire season), whereas (RS) was the primary driving force. The same factors that were shifted in time explained 73% of the transpiration variability. Cross-correlation analysis of data measured in time without water deficit demonstrated a tighter dependency of transpiration (E) on environmental drivers shifted in time (−60 min RS, +40 min RH and +20 min vapour pressure deficit against E). Due to an occurrence and duration of soil water stress, the dependence of transpiration on the environmental variables became weaker, and at the same time, the time lags were prolonged. Hence, the course of transpiration lagged behind the course of global radiation by 60 (R2 = 0.76) and 80 (R2 = 0.69) minutes in conditions without and with water deficit, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest stand transpiration; European beech; environmental drivers; drought; time lag forest stand transpiration; European beech; environmental drivers; drought; time lag
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nalevanková, P.; Sitková, Z.; Kučera, J.; Střelcová, K. Impact of Water Deficit on Seasonal and Diurnal Dynamics of European Beech Transpiration and Time-Lag Effect between Stand Transpiration and Environmental Drivers. Water 2020, 12, 3437. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123437

AMA Style

Nalevanková P, Sitková Z, Kučera J, Střelcová K. Impact of Water Deficit on Seasonal and Diurnal Dynamics of European Beech Transpiration and Time-Lag Effect between Stand Transpiration and Environmental Drivers. Water. 2020; 12(12):3437. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123437

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nalevanková, Paulína; Sitková, Zuzana; Kučera, Jíři; Střelcová, Katarína. 2020. "Impact of Water Deficit on Seasonal and Diurnal Dynamics of European Beech Transpiration and Time-Lag Effect between Stand Transpiration and Environmental Drivers" Water 12, no. 12: 3437. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123437

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