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Reliability and Efficiency of Pollutant Removal in Four-Stage Constructed Wetland of SSVF-SSHF-SSHF-SSVF Type
Article

Technological Reliability and Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Two Hybrid Constructed Wetlands in the Roztocze National Park (Poland)

Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Leszczyńskiego 7, 20-069 Lublin, Poland
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Water 2020, 12(12), 3435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123435
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 29 November 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Wastewater Management under a Climate Change)
The paper presents the results of a 3-year study on the technological reliability and the efficiency of typical domestic wastewater treatment in two hybrid constructed wetland systems (CWs) located in the area of the Roztocze National Park (Poland). The studied objects consist of an initial settling tank and a system of two beds of the vertical flow (VF) and horizontal flow (HF) (VF–HF) type with reed and willow. The wastewater flow rate in the constructed wetlands systems (CWs) was 0.4 and 1.0 m3/d, respectively. During the study period (2017–2019) 20 series of analyses were performed and 60 wastewater samples were collected. Based on the obtained results the effects of pollutant removal and the technological reliability were determined, which were specified with the Weibull method. The average efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 96–99%. Slightly lower effects were obtained in the case of total phosphorus (TP) removal (90–94%), as well as for total suspended solids (TSS) (80–87%) and total nitrogen (TN) (73–86%) removal. The analysed CWs were characterised by 100% technological reliability for BOD5 and COD, as well as a good reliability for TSS and TP (87–100%) but slightly lower for TN removal (35–89%). Hybrid CWs of VF–HF type should be recommended to use in protected areas for wastewater treatment and water resources quality protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: technological reliability; efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment; constructed wetland; hybrid system; national park technological reliability; efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment; constructed wetland; hybrid system; national park
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MDPI and ACS Style

Micek, A.; Jóźwiakowski, K.; Marzec, M.; Listosz, A. Technological Reliability and Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Two Hybrid Constructed Wetlands in the Roztocze National Park (Poland). Water 2020, 12, 3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123435

AMA Style

Micek A, Jóźwiakowski K, Marzec M, Listosz A. Technological Reliability and Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Two Hybrid Constructed Wetlands in the Roztocze National Park (Poland). Water. 2020; 12(12):3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Micek, Agnieszka; Jóźwiakowski, Krzysztof; Marzec, Michał; Listosz, Agnieszka. 2020. "Technological Reliability and Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Two Hybrid Constructed Wetlands in the Roztocze National Park (Poland)" Water 12, no. 12: 3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123435

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