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Article

Geophysical Assessment of Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers of Bela Plain, Pakistan

by 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 4,5
1
Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Innovation Academy for Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
4
Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
5
China-Pakistan Joint Research Centre on Earth Sciences, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3408; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123408
Received: 22 October 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers)
Seawater intrusion is a major challenge in many coastal areas all around the world, mainly caused by over-exploitation of freshwater resources, climate change, and sea-level rise. Consequently, seawater intrusion reaches several kilometers inland, thus making the freshwater resources polluted and unsuitable for human use. Conventionally, the fresh-saline water interface is delineated by the number of laboratory tests obtained from boreholes. However, such tests suffer from efficiency in terms of data coverage, time, and cost. Hence, this work introduces Dar-Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, namely transverse resistance (Tr), longitudinal conductance (Sc), and longitudinal resistivity (ρL) computed from non-invasive vertical electrical sounding (VES). Two-dimensional (2D) imaging of D-Z parameters provides a clear distinction of fresh-saline aquifers. Such techniques remove ambiguities in the resistivity interpretation caused by overlapping of fresh and saline aquifers during the process of suppression and equivalence. This study was carried out by 45 VES along five profiles in the coastal area of Bela Plain, Pakistan. D-Z parameters delineate fresh, brackish, and saline aquifers with a wide range of values such as freshwater with Tr > 2000 Ωm2, Sc < 3 mho, and ρL > 20 Ωm; saline water with Tr < 1000 Ωm2, Sc > 25 mho, and ρL < 5 Ωm; and brackish water with Tr between 1000–2000 Ωm2, Sc from 3 to 25 mho, and ρL between 5–20 Ωm. The D-Z results were validated by the physicochemical analysis using 13 water samples and local hydrogeological setting. The obtained results propose that D-Z parameters can be used as a powerful tool to demarcate the fresh-saline aquifer interface with more confidence than other traditional techniques. This geophysical approach can reduce the expensive number of borehole tests, and hence contributes to the future planning and development of freshwater resources in the coastal areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal aquifers; fresh-saline interface; seawater intrusion; Dar-Zarrouk parameters; electrical resistivity; Bela Plain coastal aquifers; fresh-saline interface; seawater intrusion; Dar-Zarrouk parameters; electrical resistivity; Bela Plain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasan, M.; Shang, Y.; Jin, W.; Shao, P.; Yi, X.; Akhter, G. Geophysical Assessment of Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers of Bela Plain, Pakistan. Water 2020, 12, 3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123408

AMA Style

Hasan M, Shang Y, Jin W, Shao P, Yi X, Akhter G. Geophysical Assessment of Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers of Bela Plain, Pakistan. Water. 2020; 12(12):3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123408

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasan, Muhammad, Yanjun Shang, Weijun Jin, Peng Shao, Xuetao Yi, and Gulraiz Akhter. 2020. "Geophysical Assessment of Seawater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers of Bela Plain, Pakistan" Water 12, no. 12: 3408. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123408

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