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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Changes of Morphodynamics on Little Ice Age Lateral Moraines and the Resulting Sediment Transfer into Mountain Streams in the Upper Kauner Valley, Austria

1
Department of Physical Geography, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, 85072 Eichstätt, Germany
2
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
3
Department of Geography, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
4
Department of Botany, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
5
Institute of Geography, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
6
Department of Civil, Geo and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Munich, 80333 Munich, Germany
7
Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123375
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 26 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 1 December 2020
Since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), formerly glaciated areas have undergone considerable changes in their morphodynamics due to external forces and system-internal dynamics. Using multi-temporal high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from different remote sensing techniques such as historical digital aerial images and light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and the resulting DEMs of difference (DoD), spatial erosion and accumulation patterns can be analyzed in proglacial areas over several decades. In this study, several morphological sediment budgets of different test sites on lateral moraines and different long-term periods were determined, covering a total period of 49 years. The test sites show high ongoing morphodynamics, and therefore low vegetation development. A decrease as well as an increase of the mean annual erosion volume could be demonstrated at the different test sites. All test sites show a slope–channel coupling and a decrease in the efficiency of sediment transport from slopes to channels. These developments are generally subject to conditions of increasing temperature, decreasing short-term precipitation patterns and increasing runoff from adjacent mountain streams. Finally, the study shows that sediment is still available on the investigated test sites and the paraglacial adjustment process is still in progress even after several decades of deglaciation (~133 years). View Full-Text
Keywords: geomorphic coupling; glacier retreat; historical aerial images; lateral moraines; LiDAR; morphological sediment budget; photogrammetry; proglacial areas; sediment transfer; surface change detection geomorphic coupling; glacier retreat; historical aerial images; lateral moraines; LiDAR; morphological sediment budget; photogrammetry; proglacial areas; sediment transfer; surface change detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Altmann, M.; Piermattei, L.; Haas, F.; Heckmann, T.; Fleischer, F.; Rom, J.; Betz-Nutz, S.; Knoflach, B.; Müller, S.; Ramskogler, K.; Pfeiffer, M.; Hofmeister, F.; Ressl, C.; Becht, M. Long-Term Changes of Morphodynamics on Little Ice Age Lateral Moraines and the Resulting Sediment Transfer into Mountain Streams in the Upper Kauner Valley, Austria. Water 2020, 12, 3375.

AMA Style

Altmann M, Piermattei L, Haas F, Heckmann T, Fleischer F, Rom J, Betz-Nutz S, Knoflach B, Müller S, Ramskogler K, Pfeiffer M, Hofmeister F, Ressl C, Becht M. Long-Term Changes of Morphodynamics on Little Ice Age Lateral Moraines and the Resulting Sediment Transfer into Mountain Streams in the Upper Kauner Valley, Austria. Water. 2020; 12(12):3375.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Altmann, Moritz; Piermattei, Livia; Haas, Florian; Heckmann, Tobias; Fleischer, Fabian; Rom, Jakob; Betz-Nutz, Sarah; Knoflach, Bettina; Müller, Svenja; Ramskogler, Katharina; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Hofmeister, Florentin; Ressl, Camillo; Becht, Michael. 2020. "Long-Term Changes of Morphodynamics on Little Ice Age Lateral Moraines and the Resulting Sediment Transfer into Mountain Streams in the Upper Kauner Valley, Austria" Water 12, no. 12: 3375.

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