Today, there is an increasing need to understand how to link the management of the surface and subsurface to avoid disasters in many urban areas and/or reduce the likelihood of future risks. There is a need for thorough investigation of subsurface processes. This investigation should entail an analysis of water security, flood risks, and drought hazards in urban areas that may affect long-term sustainability and the ability to recover from disturbance, e.g., a capacity for resilience. In this context, as part of this analysis, potential biophysical and hydro-meteorological hazards need to be studied and subdivided according to geological, hydrogeological, man-made, and climatic origin, and by their characteristic temporal scales and site specific characteristics. The introduction of adaptive design and resilience in urban and suburban planning and management requires a shift towards more organic, adaptive, and flexible design and management strategies. This leads to the use of a complex cross-disciplinary methodology. We consider data collation, modelling, and monitoring designed to fit typical urban situations and complexity. Furthermore, implementation of strategic planning, decision-making to manage the consequences of future infrastructure and constructions are considered. The case studies presented are experiences from different hydrogeological studies performed in Odense, Denmark. Rising population and densification is affecting Odense, and there is risk of raised seawater level, groundwater, and surface-water flooding. The anthropogenic modification of subsurface structures and increased climate changes enhance the risk of hazards and the risk of coinciding impacts.
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