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Article

Groundwater Circulation in the Xianshui River Fault Region: A Hydrogeochemical Study

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Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
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Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology for Science and Education Combined with Science and Technology Innovation Base, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
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Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
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Survey Engineering Institute, Sichuan Earthquake Administration, Ya’an 625099, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123310
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Water samples from rainfall, river, springs, and wells in the Xianshui River fault region near Xialatuo, China were collected during two sampling campaigns to investigate the complex groundwater circulation in the region. The major ions, stable isotopes, and four natural radium isotopes of the water samples were analyzed, and the results were utilized to identify different groundwater circulation depths. Most water samples excluding the one at a hot spring and the one at a borehole possess similar hydrochemical compositions and lower total dissolved solids (TDS), implying that their circulation depth is relatively shallow or that residence time is short. The sample at the hot spring has high TDS and high temperature as well as the high F concentration, inferring that it may circulate at a deeper depth. The sample at the borehole contains mixed hydrochemical characteristics of other samples. Three groundwater flow systems may exist in the study area: the shallow groundwater system recharged by precipitations and local groundwater flow, the deep groundwater system recharged by the regional groundwater flow, and the intermediate one between the above two systems. The finding of the three flow systems is supported by the δ2H and δ18O as well as the apparent radium ages of the samples. The δ2H and δ18O values at the intercept of the line formed by the shallow groundwater samples and the local meteoric water line (LMWL) are similar to those of modern precipitations. The δ2H and δ18O values at the intercept of the line formed by the deep groundwater samples and the LMWL show that it is probably recharged by relatively older precipitations. The 2H and 18O values of the borehole samples are between the above two intercept points. The deep-circulated groundwater with high temperature has longer apparent radium age than other water samples. The apparent radium ages of the shallow groundwater are similar but less than that of the deep groundwater. Groundwater at the borehole may circulate at a depth between the above two. The results of this study improve our understanding of the complex groundwater circulation and enable us to better protect and manage the groundwater resources in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical constituents; 2H and 18O; apparent radium age; groundwater flow systems chemical constituents; 2H and 18O; apparent radium age; groundwater flow systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Yang, Y.; Li, F.; Xiao, S. Groundwater Circulation in the Xianshui River Fault Region: A Hydrogeochemical Study. Water 2020, 12, 3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123310

AMA Style

Zhao Y, Zhang Y-K, Yang Y, Li F, Xiao S. Groundwater Circulation in the Xianshui River Fault Region: A Hydrogeochemical Study. Water. 2020; 12(12):3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123310

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Yuqing; Zhang, You-Kuan; Yang, Yonglin; Li, Feifei; Xiao, Sa. 2020. "Groundwater Circulation in the Xianshui River Fault Region: A Hydrogeochemical Study" Water 12, no. 12: 3310. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123310

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