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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Safe Water Programs on Water Treatment Practices of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Ethiopia, 2008

1
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
2
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Addis Ababa 1230, Ethiopia
3
Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113261
Received: 17 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
Household water chlorination has been shown to reduce diarrhea incidence among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). Some HIV programs in Ethiopia previously provided a socially marketed chlorination product (brand name WuhaAgar) to prevent diarrhea. To evaluate the program, we compared WuhaAgar use and water treatment practices between 795 clients from 20 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics and 795 community members matched by age, sex, and neighborhood. Overall, 19% of study participants reported water treatment with WuhaAgar. Being an ART clinic client was associated with reported treatment of drinking water (matched odds ratios (mOR): 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9–5.0), reported current water treatment with WuhaAgar (mOR: 5.5, 95% CI 3.9–7.7), and bottles of WuhaAgar observed in the home (mOR: 8.8, 95% CI 5.4–14.3). Being an ART clinic client was also associated with reported diarrhea among respondents (mOR: 4.8, 95% CI 2.9–7.9) and household members (mOR:2.8, 95% CI: 1.9–4.2) in the two weeks preceding the survey. Results suggest that promoting and distributing water chlorination products in ART clinics was effective in increasing access to and use of water treatment products among PLHIV. The positive association between ART clinic attendees and diarrhea likely resulted from the immunocompromised status of ART clinic clients. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; ART clinic; chlorination; diarrhea; PEPFAR HIV; ART clinic; chlorination; diarrhea; PEPFAR
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.; O’Reilly, C.E.; Abayneh, S.A.; Bhattarai, A.; Ahmed, J.; Mekonnen, A.; Salah, Z.; Quick, R. Impact of Safe Water Programs on Water Treatment Practices of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Ethiopia, 2008. Water 2020, 12, 3261. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113261

AMA Style

Kim S, O’Reilly CE, Abayneh SA, Bhattarai A, Ahmed J, Mekonnen A, Salah Z, Quick R. Impact of Safe Water Programs on Water Treatment Practices of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Ethiopia, 2008. Water. 2020; 12(11):3261. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113261

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Sunkyung; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Abayneh, Sisay A.; Bhattarai, Achuyt; Ahmed, Jelaludin; Mekonnen, Alemayehu; Salah, Zainab; Quick, Rob. 2020. "Impact of Safe Water Programs on Water Treatment Practices of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Ethiopia, 2008" Water 12, no. 11: 3261. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113261

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