Next Article in Journal
Assessment of the Anthropogenic Sediment Budget of a Littoral Cell System (Northern Tuscany, Italy)
Previous Article in Journal
Effectiveness of the “Ecological Beach” Model: Beneficial Management of Posidonia Beach Casts and Banquette
Open AccessArticle

A Comparative Approach to a Series of Physico-Chemical Quality Indices Used in Assessing Water Quality in the Lower Danube

European Center of Excellence for the Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Environment, University of Galati, 800201 Galati, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113239
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 15 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
Water quality indices are suitable tools used for assessing water quality because of their capacity to reduce a large number of water quality indicators into one value which defines the water quality class. In this study, Water Quality Index (WQI), Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) were applied in order to evaluate the seasonal and spatial variation of the water quality in the Romanian Lower Danube sector. Fourteen physico-chemical parameters, i.e., pH, DO, BOD5, COD, N-NH4+, N-NO3, N-NO2, N-total, P-total, SO42−, Cl, Fe-total, Zn2+ and Cr-total, were monitored along the Danube course (on a distance of about 120 km), during the four seasons between the autumn of 2018 and the summer of 2019 in order to calculate the three indices mentioned above. Indices results showed that the water analysed was ranked into different water quality classes, although the same dataset was used. These differences were due to the contribution of each parameter taken into account in the calculation formula. Thus, the WQI scores were mostly influenced by those parameters whose maximum allowable concentration was low (e.g., heavy metals, N-NO2), while the WPI and CCME-WQI scores were influenced by those parameters which exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (BOD5, DO, COD, N-NO3, N-NO2). Based on the WQI results, the water was ranked into quality classes II and III. WPI and CCME-WQI assessed water only in quality class II, with one exception in the case of CCME-WQI when water was ranked into quality class III. The temporal assessment identified the seasons in which the water quality was lower, namely summer and autumn. The variation of the indices values between the sampling stations demonstrates the existence of pollution sources in the study area. Moreover, the indices results illustrated the contribution of the main tributaries (Rivers Siret and Prut) to the Danube River water quality. The appropriate applicability of the three indices was also discussed in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality indices; Lower Danube; physico-chemical parameters; quality class; comparative analysis water quality indices; Lower Danube; physico-chemical parameters; quality class; comparative analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Calmuc, M.; Calmuc, V.; Arseni, M.; Topa, C.; Timofti, M.; Georgescu, L.P.; Iticescu, C. A Comparative Approach to a Series of Physico-Chemical Quality Indices Used in Assessing Water Quality in the Lower Danube. Water 2020, 12, 3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113239

AMA Style

Calmuc M, Calmuc V, Arseni M, Topa C, Timofti M, Georgescu LP, Iticescu C. A Comparative Approach to a Series of Physico-Chemical Quality Indices Used in Assessing Water Quality in the Lower Danube. Water. 2020; 12(11):3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113239

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calmuc, Madalina; Calmuc, Valentina; Arseni, Maxim; Topa, Catalina; Timofti, Mihaela; Georgescu, Lucian P.; Iticescu, Catalina. 2020. "A Comparative Approach to a Series of Physico-Chemical Quality Indices Used in Assessing Water Quality in the Lower Danube" Water 12, no. 11: 3239. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113239

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop