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Using Freshwater Bivalves (Corbicula Fluminea) to Alleviate Harmful Effects of Small-Sized Crucian Carp (Carassius Carassius) on Growth of Submerged Macrophytes during Lake Restoration by Biomanipulation

by 1, 2,3,4,*, 3,5,6,7, 2, 8, 2 and 9
1
Institute of Geography Science, Taiyuan Normal University, Jinzhong 030619, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
3
Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing Three Gorges University, Wanzhou 404000, China
5
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
6
Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences and Centre for Ecosystem Research and Implementation, METU Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Çankaya/Ankara, Turkey
7
Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 33731 Mersin, Turkey
8
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
9
College of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113161
Received: 23 September 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
Increased recruitment of small-sized fish following biomanipulation by reducing the biomass of plankti-benthivorous fish, not least in (sub)tropical lakes, may deteriorate water quality and thereby potentially hamper the recovery of submerged macrophytes. Filter-feeding bivalves remove suspended particles from the water and may, thereby, somewhat or fully counteract this negative effect of the increasing abundance of small-sized fish. So far, only few studies have investigated the interactive effects of fish and bivalves on water clarity and macrophyte growth. We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial designed outdoor mesocosm experiment with two densities of small crucian carp Carassius carassius (low 10 g m−2 and high 40 g m−2) and two densities of bivalves Corbicula fluminea (low 204 g m−2 and high 816 g m−2). We found significant interactive effect of fish and bivalves on the growth of the macrophyte Vallisneria natans. In the low density bivalve regime, the relative growth rates, root mass, root:shoot ratio and number of tubers were 30.3%, 30.8%, 21.6% and 27.8% lower in the high than in the low density fish treatments, while the decrease was less pronounced in the high density bivalve regime: 1.2%, 8.7%, 2.1% and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, bivalves reduced the negative effects of fish, not least when bivalve density was high. The weaker effects of small fish on plants in the high- than in the low-density C. fluminea regime can be attributed to lower total suspended solids (TSS) and Chl a in the first week of the experiment. Better light conditions further stimulated the growth of benthic algae, potentially increasing the removal of nutrients from the water and reducing fish-driven resuspension of the sediment. In addition, high densities of C. fluminea also enriched the sediment total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) content, favouring plant growth as indicated by an increase in leaf tissue TN and TP contents. Our results demonstrate that filter-feeding bivalves can alleviate harmful effects of small fish by prolonging a clear-water state that facilitates submerged macrophyte growth. Addition of the bivalve C. fluminea can be a promising tool for the restoration of submerged macrophytes in shallow eutrophic lakes, in particular lakes containing small, rapidly reproducing fish that due to their small sizes are not capable of controlling the bivalves. View Full-Text
Keywords: small-sized fish; Corbicula fluminea; submerged macrophytes; restoration small-sized fish; Corbicula fluminea; submerged macrophytes; restoration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, J.; Li, K.; Jeppesen, E.; Han, Y.; Jin, H.; He, H.; Ning, X. Using Freshwater Bivalves (Corbicula Fluminea) to Alleviate Harmful Effects of Small-Sized Crucian Carp (Carassius Carassius) on Growth of Submerged Macrophytes during Lake Restoration by Biomanipulation. Water 2020, 12, 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113161

AMA Style

Gu J, Li K, Jeppesen E, Han Y, Jin H, He H, Ning X. Using Freshwater Bivalves (Corbicula Fluminea) to Alleviate Harmful Effects of Small-Sized Crucian Carp (Carassius Carassius) on Growth of Submerged Macrophytes during Lake Restoration by Biomanipulation. Water. 2020; 12(11):3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Jiao; Li, Kuanyi; Jeppesen, Erik; Han, Yanqing; Jin, Hui; He, Hu; Ning, Xiaoyu. 2020. "Using Freshwater Bivalves (Corbicula Fluminea) to Alleviate Harmful Effects of Small-Sized Crucian Carp (Carassius Carassius) on Growth of Submerged Macrophytes during Lake Restoration by Biomanipulation" Water 12, no. 11: 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113161

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