Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS): Interventions, Impacts and Challenges
Next Article in Special Issue
Integrated Low-Cost Approach for Measuring the State of Conservation of Agricultural Terraces in Tuscany, Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Ecological Status Assessment of Transitional Waters
Previous Article in Special Issue
System Dynamics Applied to Terraced Agroecosystems: The Case Study of Assaragh (Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco)
Article

Organic Matter Clogging Results in Undeveloped Hardpan and Soil Mineral Leakage in the Rice Terraces in the Philippine Cordilleras

1
Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
2
Universal Harvester Inc., 7th/8th Avenue, Cubao, Quezon City 1109, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113158
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terraced Landscapes and Hydrological-Geological Hazards)
Rice terraces in Cordillera, Philippines, a world cultural heritage site, are threatened by the risk of collapse. It is crucial to manage these rice terraces for their conservation, while simultaneously practicing traditional farming. We examined the soil environment and investigated its effects on rice terrace conservation, by focusing on the hardpan condition; infiltration process, which is related to the collapse of rice terraces; and soil nutrition conditions in these sites. Field survey and soil analysis revealed that in areas where the hardpan was not sufficiently developed and water infiltration was effectively suppressed, organic matter content was significantly high, suggesting organic matter clogging. In these rice terraces, the amounts of P, K, Ca, and Mn were significantly low, showing the mineral leaching under reductive soil conditions. Therefore, hardpan formation, rather than organic matter clogging, is essential for the suppression of infiltration and prevention of potential terrace collapse. Because hardpan formation or organic matter clogging cannot be identified from the surface of flooded rice paddies, it is difficult to identify the influencing factor. Thus, we suggest that the hard soil layer should be checked before the planting season and drainage is allowed after the cropping season in the rainy season. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice terrace; hardpan; infiltration; organic matter; clogging; Philippine Cordillera rice terrace; hardpan; infiltration; organic matter; clogging; Philippine Cordillera
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kurozumi, T.; Mori, Y.; Somura, H.; O-How, M. Organic Matter Clogging Results in Undeveloped Hardpan and Soil Mineral Leakage in the Rice Terraces in the Philippine Cordilleras. Water 2020, 12, 3158. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113158

AMA Style

Kurozumi T, Mori Y, Somura H, O-How M. Organic Matter Clogging Results in Undeveloped Hardpan and Soil Mineral Leakage in the Rice Terraces in the Philippine Cordilleras. Water. 2020; 12(11):3158. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113158

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kurozumi, Tomoyo; Mori, Yasushi; Somura, Hiroaki; O-How, Milagros. 2020. "Organic Matter Clogging Results in Undeveloped Hardpan and Soil Mineral Leakage in the Rice Terraces in the Philippine Cordilleras" Water 12, no. 11: 3158. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113158

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop