Next Article in Journal
Implementation of the Kalman Filter for a Geostatistical Bivariate Spatiotemporal Estimation of Hydraulic Conductivity in Aquifers
Previous Article in Journal
Behaviour of Capillary Barrier Covers Subjected to Rainfall with Different Patterns
Open AccessArticle

A GIS Multi-Criteria Analysis Tool for a Low-Cost, Preliminary Evaluation of Wetland Effectiveness for Nutrient Buffering at Watershed Scale: The Case Study of Grand River, Ontario, Canada

1
Water Forum, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Marshes Upper, Dundalk Co., A91K584 Louth, Ireland
2
The Water Institute, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
3
Institute of Marine Biological Resources and Inland Waters, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos Attikis, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113134
Received: 18 October 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 7 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
One significant concern of Ontario’s water quality management is the reduction in nutrient export. Decision makers have considered nature-based solutions, such as wetlands, depending on their cost-effectiveness for nutrient filtering. All wetland ecosystems interact with the surrounding environment; however, their performances are not always known, which prevents a fair comparison with other treatment alternatives. This study presents a methodological approach for mapping areas that can potentially support effective (or ineffective) wetlands for nutrient buffering. The Grand River watershed, Ontario was selected to demonstrate the methodology. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are combined with multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to evaluate wetland effectiveness under geomorphological, climatological, hydrological, and land use factors. The selected factor maps (criteria) are normalized, and then used as inputs in an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted by experts based on how these factors affect wetlands’ performance. The promising areas’ spatial distributions are the output, which is compared with previous studies’ mappings of nutrient concentrations in the watershed. The proposed tool provides a low-cost preliminary estimation that informs policymakers if wetland solutions could achieve the desired environmental goals. This methodological approach supports Canadian wetland conservation efforts and enables a more complete decision-making process. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-criteria analysis tool; water quality; wetland effectiveness; phosphorus; Grand River watershed; Ontario Canada multi-criteria analysis tool; water quality; wetland effectiveness; phosphorus; Grand River watershed; Ontario Canada
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alamanos, A.; Papaioannou, G. A GIS Multi-Criteria Analysis Tool for a Low-Cost, Preliminary Evaluation of Wetland Effectiveness for Nutrient Buffering at Watershed Scale: The Case Study of Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Water 2020, 12, 3134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113134

AMA Style

Alamanos A, Papaioannou G. A GIS Multi-Criteria Analysis Tool for a Low-Cost, Preliminary Evaluation of Wetland Effectiveness for Nutrient Buffering at Watershed Scale: The Case Study of Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Water. 2020; 12(11):3134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alamanos, Angelos; Papaioannou, George. 2020. "A GIS Multi-Criteria Analysis Tool for a Low-Cost, Preliminary Evaluation of Wetland Effectiveness for Nutrient Buffering at Watershed Scale: The Case Study of Grand River, Ontario, Canada" Water 12, no. 11: 3134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113134

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop