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Comprehensive Understanding of Groundwater Geochemistry and Suitability for Sustainable Drinking Purposes in Confined Aquifers of the Wuyi Region, Central North China Plain

1
Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Shijiazhuang 050061, China
2
Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
3
School of Water Resources and Environment, Hebei GEO University, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113052
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Confined groundwater is important for the domestic water supply in arid and semiarid regions that have salty phreatic water. A systematic investigation was conducted in the Wuyi region, a typical central area of the North China Plain (NCP), regarding the confined groundwater geochemistry. A total of 59 samples were collected from confined aquifers across the region for in situ parameter determination and laboratory analysis. The results showed the confined groundwater was neutral to slightly alkaline, and dominantly soft fresh. The moderately hard brackish water and very hard brackish water accounted for 1.69% and 6.78% of the total samples, respectively. The hydro-chemical faces are mainly SO4·Cl–Na type with a few of the HCO3–Na type. The entropy-weighted water quality index assessment demonstrated that 21.3% of the groundwater samples came under the medium to extremely poor quality, and were unsuitable for drinking purposes due to the high content of major ions. Various populations are at a chronic health risk at some local sites by high levels of F- and Fe in groundwater, with susceptibility in the order of adult females < adult males < children < infants. The poor groundwater quality and health threats result from the natural water–rock interactions (including mineral dissolution and cation exchange) rather than anthropogenic inputs. This research can provide references for groundwater resource development and management in the NCP and other similar regions worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogeochemical signature; confined groundwater; drinking water quality; health risk assessment; North China Plain hydrogeochemical signature; confined groundwater; drinking water quality; health risk assessment; North China Plain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hao, Q.; Xiao, Y.; Chen, K.; Zhu, Y.; Li, J. Comprehensive Understanding of Groundwater Geochemistry and Suitability for Sustainable Drinking Purposes in Confined Aquifers of the Wuyi Region, Central North China Plain. Water 2020, 12, 3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113052

AMA Style

Hao Q, Xiao Y, Chen K, Zhu Y, Li J. Comprehensive Understanding of Groundwater Geochemistry and Suitability for Sustainable Drinking Purposes in Confined Aquifers of the Wuyi Region, Central North China Plain. Water. 2020; 12(11):3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hao, Qichen; Xiao, Yong; Chen, Kang; Zhu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfeng. 2020. "Comprehensive Understanding of Groundwater Geochemistry and Suitability for Sustainable Drinking Purposes in Confined Aquifers of the Wuyi Region, Central North China Plain" Water 12, no. 11: 3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113052

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