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Evaluation of Temporal Contribution of Groundwater to a Small Lake through Analyses of Water Quantity and Quality
Open AccessArticle

Quantifying Focused Groundwater Recharge Induced by Irrigation Surface Water Reservoirs in Crystalline Basement Areas for Complementary Irrigation

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Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Urban and Environmental Engineering, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B52, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Ministry in Charge of Agriculture and Irrigation, 03 BP 7005, Ouaga 2000, Burkina Faso
3
Ecole Supérieure d’Ingéninerie (ESI), University of Fada N’Gourma, BP 54, Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso
4
Scientific Institute for Public Services, 4000 Liège, Belgium
5
Non-Governmental Organization: Join For Water Benin, Benin
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102880
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Through the practice of irrigation, surface water reservoirs (SWRs) contribute to the socio-economic development and food production activities of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, they tend to dry up prematurely. One solution to circumvent these irrigation water shortages is to ensure their conjunctive use with groundwater. The objective of this study is to better understand the contribution of SWRs to groundwater recharge and to determine if groundwater may be considered as a complementary local resource for irrigation. The study was carried out on two watersheds in Burkina Faso, Kierma and Mogtedo. The spatiotemporal analysis of piezometric and SWRs level records coupled with physico-chemical analyses of water was used to characterize exchanges between SWRs and groundwater. The regional groundwater recharge at the scale of the watersheds was assessed. At the SWRs scale, a water balance methodology was developed and used to estimate focused recharge. The results show that SWRs interact almost continuously with groundwater and contribute focused recharge. The magnitude of this recharge is a function of the geological context and the sediment texture of the SWRs. It is estimated at 5 mm/day in Kierma and 4 mm/day in Mogtédo. These values are higher than the natural recharge estimated at 0.2 mm/day in Kierma and 0.1 mm/day in Mogtédo. Additionally, the values of hydraulic conductivity are between 0.01 and 2 m/day in Kierma and between 1 × 10−4 and 0.2 m/day in Mogtédo. These conductivities could allow pumping in large-diameter hand-dug wells with a significant yield between 0.5 and 120 m3/day in Kierma and between 0 and 10 m3/day in Mogtédo to palliate the early drying up of the SWRs. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface water reservoir; groundwater water balance; piezometry; hydrochemistry; recharge surface water reservoir; groundwater water balance; piezometry; hydrochemistry; recharge
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bambara, A.; Orban, P.; Ouedraogo, I.; Hallot, E.; Guyon, F.; Zangré, A.; Brouyère, S. Quantifying Focused Groundwater Recharge Induced by Irrigation Surface Water Reservoirs in Crystalline Basement Areas for Complementary Irrigation. Water 2020, 12, 2880.

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