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Open AccessArticle

Study of the Water Quality Index and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon for a River Receiving Treated Landfill Leachate

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
2
Civil Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Tungku Highway, Gadong BE1410, Brunei
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102877
Received: 29 July 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Modeling of Surface Water Bodies)
Rising solid waste production has caused high levels of environmental pollution. Population growth, economic patterns, and lifestyle patterns are major factors that have led to the alarming rate of solid waste production. Generally, solid wastes such as paper, wood, and plastic are disposed into landfills due to its low operation and maintenance costs. However, leachate discharged from landfills could be a problem in surfaces and groundwater if not adequately treated. This study investigated the patterns of the water quality index (WQI) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) along Johan River in Perak, Malaysia, which received treated leachate from a nearby landfill. An artificial neural network (ANN) was also applied to predict WQI and PAH concentration of the river. Seven sampling stations were chosen along the river. The stations represented the upstream of leachate discharge, point of leachate discharge, and five locations downstream of the landfill. Sampling was conducted for one year starting July 2018. Physicochemical parameters, namely pH, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen, were used to compute the water quality index (WQI). PAH concentrations were determined by liquid–liquid extraction of water samples followed by an analysis using gas chromatography. Results showed that WQI of Johan River was under Class III where intensive treatment was required to make it suitable for drinking purposes. The highest recorded PAH concentrations were fluoranthene (333.4 ppb) in the dry season and benzo(a) pyrene (93.5 ppb) in the wet season. A correlation coefficient (Rp) for a model prediction based on WQI-ANN and TEC-ANN (toxicity equivalent concentration) in the wet and dry seasons was 0.9915, 0.9431, 0.9999, and 0.9999, respectively. ANN results showed good model performance with Rp ≈ 0.9. This study suggested that ANN is a useful tool for water quality studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: landfill; leachate; river; water quality index (WQI); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH); artificial neural network (ANN) landfill; leachate; river; water quality index (WQI); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH); artificial neural network (ANN)
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Tan Pei Jian, B.; Ul Mustafa, M.R.; Hasnain Isa, M.; Yaqub, A.; Ho, Y.C.Y. Study of the Water Quality Index and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon for a River Receiving Treated Landfill Leachate. Water 2020, 12, 2877.

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