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Open AccessArticle

Energy Efficient Rapid Removal of Arsenic in an Electrocoagulation Reactor with Hybrid Fe/Al Electrodes: Process Optimization Using CCD and Kinetic Modeling

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202001, India
2
Institute for Water Resources and Water Supply, Hamburg University of Technology, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 3, 20173 Hamburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102876
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Electrocoagulation in Water and Wastewater)
Threats due to insufficient, inadequate and costlier methods of treating contaminants such as arsenic have emphasized the significance of optimizing and managing the processes adopted. This study was aimed at the complete elimination of arsenic from an aqueous medium with minimum energy consumption using the electrocoagulation process. Arsenic removal around 95% was rapidly attained for optimized conditions having a pH of 7, 0.46 A current intensity, 10 mg/L initial concentration and only 2 min of applied time duration using the energy of 3.1 watt-hour per gram of arsenic removed. Low values of applied current for longer durations resulted in the complete removal of arsenic with low energy consumption. Various hydroxide complexes including ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide assisted in the removal of arsenic by adsorption along with co-precipitation. Surface models obtained were checked and found with a reasonably good fit having high values of coefficient of determination of 0.933 and 0.980 for removal efficiency and energy consumption, respectively. Adsorption was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Multivariate optimization proved it as a low-cost effective technology having an operational cost of 0.0974 Indian rupees (equivalent to USD 0.0013) per gram removal of arsenic. Overall, the process was well optimized using CCD based on response surface methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic removal; response surface methodology; central composite design; energy minimization; kinetic models arsenic removal; response surface methodology; central composite design; energy minimization; kinetic models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, S.U.; Farooqi, I.H.; Usman, M.; Basheer, F. Energy Efficient Rapid Removal of Arsenic in an Electrocoagulation Reactor with Hybrid Fe/Al Electrodes: Process Optimization Using CCD and Kinetic Modeling. Water 2020, 12, 2876. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102876

AMA Style

Khan SU, Farooqi IH, Usman M, Basheer F. Energy Efficient Rapid Removal of Arsenic in an Electrocoagulation Reactor with Hybrid Fe/Al Electrodes: Process Optimization Using CCD and Kinetic Modeling. Water. 2020; 12(10):2876. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102876

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Saif U.; Farooqi, Izharul H.; Usman, Muhammad; Basheer, Farrukh. 2020. "Energy Efficient Rapid Removal of Arsenic in an Electrocoagulation Reactor with Hybrid Fe/Al Electrodes: Process Optimization Using CCD and Kinetic Modeling" Water 12, no. 10: 2876. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102876

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