Next Article in Journal
From Highs to Lows: Changes in Dissolved Organic Carbon in a Peatland Catchment and Lake Following Extreme Flow Events
Next Article in Special Issue
Water Footprint Study Review for Understanding and Resolving Water Issues in China
Previous Article in Journal
On the Use of a Real-Time Control Approach for Urban Stormwater Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Water Footprint of Global Food Production
Review

Burning Water, Overview of the Contribution of Arjen Hoekstra to the Water Energy Nexus

1
Integrated Research on Energy, Environment and Society (IREES), University of Groningen, Nijenborg 6, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Scinergy, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11·253, Quito 01-17-2759, Ecuador
3
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102844
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Memory of Prof. Arjen Y. Hoekstra)
This paper gives an overview of the contribution of water footprint (WF) studies on water for energy relationships. It first explains why water is needed for energy, gives an overview of important water energy studies until 2009, shows the contribution of Hoekstra’s work on WF of energy generation, and indicates how this contribution has supported new research. Finally, it provides knowledge gaps that are relevant for future studies. Energy source categories are: 1. biofuels from sugar, starch and oil crops; 2. cellulosic feedstocks; 3. biofuels from algae; 4. firewood; 5. hydropower and 6. various sources of energy including electricity, heat and transport fuels. Especially category 1, 3, 4, 5 and to a lesser extent 2 have relatively large WFs. This is because the energy source derives from agriculture or forestry, which has a large water use (1,2,4), or has large water use due to evaporation from open water surfaces (3,5). WFs for these categories can be calculated using the WF tool. Category 6 includes fossil fuels and renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind energy and has relatively small WFs. However, information needs to be derived from industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arjen Hoekstra; water footprint; water–energy nexus Arjen Hoekstra; water footprint; water–energy nexus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gerbens-Leenes, W.; Vaca-Jiménez, S.; Mekonnen, M. Burning Water, Overview of the Contribution of Arjen Hoekstra to the Water Energy Nexus. Water 2020, 12, 2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102844

AMA Style

Gerbens-Leenes W, Vaca-Jiménez S, Mekonnen M. Burning Water, Overview of the Contribution of Arjen Hoekstra to the Water Energy Nexus. Water. 2020; 12(10):2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Vaca-Jiménez, Santiago; Mekonnen, Mesfin. 2020. "Burning Water, Overview of the Contribution of Arjen Hoekstra to the Water Energy Nexus" Water 12, no. 10: 2844. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102844

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop