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Quantitative Analysis of the Sub-Cloud Evaporation of Atmospheric Precipitation and Its Controlling Factors Calculated By D-Excess in an Inland River Basin of China

1
Yulong Snow Mountain Glacier and Environment Observation and Research Station/State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102798
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 October 2020 / Published: 9 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Atmospheric precipitation is an important part of the water circle in an inland basin. Based on the analytical results of 149 precipitation samples and corresponding surface meteorological data collected at four sampling sites (Lenglong, Ningchang, Huajian and Xiying) at different elevations in the Xiying river basin on the north slope of Qilian Mountains from May to September 2017, the sub-cloud evaporation in precipitation and its controlling factors are analyzed by the Stewart model. The results show that sub-cloud evaporation led to d-excess value in precipitation decrease and d-excess variation from cloud-base to near surface (Δd) increase with decreasing altitude. The remaining evaporation fraction of raindrop (f) decreases with decreasing altitude. The difference of underlying surface led to a difference change of f and Δd in the Xiying sampling site. For every 1% increase in raindrop evaporation, d-excess value in precipitation decreased by about 0.99‰. In an environment of high relative humidity and low temperature, the slope of the linear relationship between f and Δd is less than 0.99. In contrast, in the environment of low relative humidity and high temperature, the slope is higher than 0.99. In this study, set constant raindrop diameter may affect the calculation accuracy. The Stewart model could have different parameter requirements in different study areas. This research is helpful to understand water cycle and land–atmosphere interactions in Qilian Mountains. View Full-Text
Keywords: sub-cloud evaporation; d-excess; Stewart model; Qilian Mountains sub-cloud evaporation; d-excess; Stewart model; Qilian Mountains
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Ma, X.; Jia, W.; Zhu, G.; Wang, S. Quantitative Analysis of the Sub-Cloud Evaporation of Atmospheric Precipitation and Its Controlling Factors Calculated By D-Excess in an Inland River Basin of China. Water 2020, 12, 2798.

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