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Open AccessArticle

Urban Groundwater Processes and Anthropogenic Interactions (Porto Region, NW Portugal)

1
Laboratory of Cartography and Applied Geology (LABCARGA), Department of Geotechnical Engineering, School of Engineering (ISEP), Polytechnic of Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
GeoBioTec Centre (Georesources, Geotechnics, Geomaterials research group, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
CITEUC, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA), Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
5
Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 2695-066 Bobadela, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102797
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 October 2020 / Published: 9 October 2020
Groundwater in fissured rocks is one of the most important reserves of available fresh water, and urbanization applies an extremely complex pressure which puts this natural resource at risk. Two-thirds of Portugal is composed of fissured aquifers. In this context, the Porto urban region is the second biggest metropolitan area in mainland Portugal. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach was developed, using hydrogeological GIS-based mapping and modeling, combining hydrogeochemical, isotopic, and hydrodynamical data. In addition, an urban infiltration potential index (IPI-Urban) was outlined with the combination of several thematic layers. Hydrogeochemical signatures are mainly Cl-Na to Cl-SO4-Na, being dependent on the geographic proximity of this region to the ocean, and on anthropogenic and agricultural contamination processes, namely fertilizers, sewage, as well as animal and human wastes. Isotopic signatures characterize a meteoric origin for groundwater, with shallow flow paths and short residence times. Pumping tests revealed a semi- to confined system, with low long-term well capacities (<1 L/s), low transmissivities (<4 m2/day), and low storage coefficients (<10−2). The IPI-Urban index showed a low groundwater infiltration potential, which was enhanced by urban hydraulic and sanitation features. This study assessed the major hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, therefore, contributing to a better knowledge of sustainable urban groundwater systems in fractured media. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban groundwater; hydrogeochemistry; hydrodynamics; IPI-Urban; NW Portugal urban groundwater; hydrogeochemistry; hydrodynamics; IPI-Urban; NW Portugal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afonso, M.J.; Freitas, L.; Marques, J.M.; Carreira, P.M.; Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Rocha, F.; I. Chaminé, H. Urban Groundwater Processes and Anthropogenic Interactions (Porto Region, NW Portugal). Water 2020, 12, 2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102797

AMA Style

Afonso MJ, Freitas L, Marques JM, Carreira PM, Pereira AJSC, Rocha F, I. Chaminé H. Urban Groundwater Processes and Anthropogenic Interactions (Porto Region, NW Portugal). Water. 2020; 12(10):2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afonso, Maria J.; Freitas, Liliana; Marques, José M.; Carreira, Paula M.; Pereira, Alcides J.S.C.; Rocha, Fernando; I. Chaminé, Helder. 2020. "Urban Groundwater Processes and Anthropogenic Interactions (Porto Region, NW Portugal)" Water 12, no. 10: 2797. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102797

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