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Open AccessArticle

Impacts of Climate and Land-Use Change on Blue and Green Water: A Case Study of the Upper Ganjiang River Basin, China

1
College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
2
Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Prevention, Jiangxi Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Nanchang 330029, China
3
Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
4
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102661
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 18 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Quantitatively figuring out the effects of climate and land-use change on water resources and their components is essential for water resource management. This study investigates the effects of climate and land-use change on blue and green water and their components in the upper Ganjiang River basin from the 1980s to the 2010s by comparing the simulated changes in blue and green water resources by using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model forced by five climate and land-use scenarios. The results suggest that the blue water flow (BWF) decreased by 86.03 mm year−1, while green water flow (GWF) and green water storage (GWS) increased by 8.61 mm year−1 and 12.51 mm year−1, respectively. The spatial distribution of blue and green water was impacted by climate, wind direction, topography, and elevation. Climate change was the main factor affecting blue and green water resources in the basin; land-use change had strong effects only locally. Precipitation changes significantly amplified the BWF changes. The proportion of surface runoff in BWF was positively correlated with precipitation changes; lateral flow showed the opposite tendency. Higher temperatures resulted in increased GWF and decreased BWF, both of which were most sensitive to temperature increases up to 1 °C. All agricultural land and forestland conversion scenarios resulted in decreased BWF and increased GWF in the watershed. GWS was less affected by climate and land-use change than GWF and BWF, and the trends in GWS were not significant. The study provides a reference for blue and green water resource management in humid areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue water; green water; SWAT; land use change; climate change; upper Ganjiang River basin blue water; green water; SWAT; land use change; climate change; upper Ganjiang River basin
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Zhang, Y.; Tang, C.; Ye, A.; Zheng, T.; Nie, X.; Tu, A.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, S. Impacts of Climate and Land-Use Change on Blue and Green Water: A Case Study of the Upper Ganjiang River Basin, China. Water 2020, 12, 2661.

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