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Open AccessArticle

The Application of Artificial Mussels in Conjunction with Transplanted Bivalves to Assess Elemental Exposure in a Platinum Mining Area

1
Water Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
2
Department of Aquatic Ecology and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010032
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
There is increasing evidence that platinum group elements (PGE) are pollutants of emerging concern worldwide. Limited information exists on levels, particularly in regions where PGEs are mined. A passive sampling device (i.e., the artificial mussel (AM)) and transplanted indicator organisms (i.e., the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminalis africana) were deployed along a PGE mining gradient in the Hex River, South Africa, and concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Pt, V, and Zn were determined after six weeks of exposure. Results showed differential uptake patterns for Pt, Cr, and Ni between the AMs and clams indicating availability differences. For monitoring purposes, a combination of AMs and indicator organisms provides a more holistic assessment of element exposure in aquatic environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: platinum; bioaccumulation; passive sample; freshwater clam; Corbicula fluminalis africana platinum; bioaccumulation; passive sample; freshwater clam; Corbicula fluminalis africana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Labuschagne, M.; Wepener, V.; Nachev, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Sures, B.; Smit, N.J. The Application of Artificial Mussels in Conjunction with Transplanted Bivalves to Assess Elemental Exposure in a Platinum Mining Area. Water 2020, 12, 32.

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