Next Article in Journal
Analysis of the Flow in a Typified USBR II Stilling Basin through a Numerical and Physical Modeling Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
The Transition to Improved Water-Related Energy Management: Enabling Contexts for Policy Innovation
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Quality of the Shallow Coastal Aquifer of Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria
Open AccessArticle

An Analysis of Electricity Consumption Patterns in the Water and Wastewater Sectors in South East England, UK

Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
Thames Water Utilities Ltd., Reading RG2 0BY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy, London SW1H 0ET, UK.
Current affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
Water 2020, 12(1), 225;
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Management of the Energy Impact of Urban Water)
The water and wastewater sectors of England and Wales (E&W) are energy-intensive. Although E&W’s water sector is of international interest, in particular due to the early experience with privatisation, for the time being, few published data on energy usage exist. We analysed telemetry energy-use data from Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (TWUL), the largest water and wastewater company in the UK, which serves one of the largest mega-cities in the world, London. In our analysis, we: (1) break down energy use into their components; (2) present a statistical approach to handling seasonal and random cycles in data; and (3) derive energy-intensity (kWh m−3) metrics and compare them with other regions in the world. We show that electricity use in the sector grew by around 10.8 ± 0.4% year−1 as the utility coped with growing demands and stormwater flooding. The energy-intensity of water services in each of the utility’s service zone was measured in the range 0.46–0.92 kWh m−3. Plans to improve the efficiency of the system could yield benefits in lower energy-intensity, but the overall energy saving would be temporary as external pressures from population and climate change are driving up water and energy use. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity water-energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Majid, A.; Cardenes, I.; Zorn, C.; Russell, T.; Colquhoun, K.; Bañares-Alcantara, R.; Hall, J.W. An Analysis of Electricity Consumption Patterns in the Water and Wastewater Sectors in South East England, UK. Water 2020, 12, 225.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop