The hydrodynamics of the TagusROFI (Regions of Freshwater Influence) is affected by the coastal upwelling, the estuarine tidal flow, the thermohaline circulation that is modulated by the Tagus freshwater discharge, and by its complex bathymetry. The use of numerical models is the best way to explain the processes that characterize this region. These models are also crucial to answer important scientific and management questions. Nevertheless, the robustness of the products derived from models depend on their accuracy and therefore models must be validated to determine the uncertainty associated. Time and space variability of the driving forces and of bathymetry enhance flow complexity increasing validation difficulties, requiring continuous high-resolution data to describe flow and thermohaline horizontal and vertical variabilities. In the present work, to increase the precision and accuracy of the coastal processes simulations, the sub-systems coastal area and the Tagus estuary were integrated into a single domain, which considers higher resolution grids in both horizontal and vertical directions. The three-dimensiosal (3D)-MOHID Water model was validated for the TagusROFI by comparing statistically modelling results with in situ and satellite L4 data. Validation with a conductivity, temperature, and depth probe (CTD), an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and satellite data was performed for the first time. Validation against tidal gauges showed that the model is able to simulate tidal propagation inside the estuary with accuracy. A very good agreement between CTD data and surface sea water temperature (SST) and salinity simulations was observed. The validation of current direction and velocity from ADCP data also indicated a high model accuracy for these variables. Comparisons between model and satellite for SST also showed that the model produces realistic SSTs and upwelling events. Overall results showed that MOHID setup and parametrisations are well implemented for the TagusROFI domain. These results are even more important when a 3D model is used in simulations due to its complexity once it considers both horizontal and vertical discretization allowing a better representation of the heat and salinity fluxes in the water column. Moreover, the results achieved indicates that 3D-MOHID is robust enough to run in operational mode, including its forecast ability, fundamental to be used as a management tool.
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