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Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions

1
Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
2
College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah 51006, Iraq
3
Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 54003, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071393
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Management Strategy Under Global Change)
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Abstract

Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are well known applications around the world, due to their relation to heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) applications. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are tank, pit, aquifer, cavern, tubes, and borehole. Apart from the tank, all other kinds are site condition dependent (hydro-geologically and geologically). The aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system is a widespread and desirable system, due to its thermal features and feasibility. In spite of all the advantages which it possesses, it has not been adopted in very shallow groundwater (less than 2 m depth) regions, till now, due to the susceptibility of the storage efficiency of these systems to the in-site parameters. This paper aims to find a reliable method that can be used to find the best location to install ATES systems. The concept of the suggested method is based on integrating three methods. They are, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the DRASTIC index method, and ArcMap/GIS software. The results from this method include a criterion that summarizes the best location to install an ATES system. This criterion is depicted by ArcMap/GIS software, producing raster maps that specify the best location for the storage system. The suggested method can be used to find the best location to install the thermal storage, especially in susceptible aquifers. View Full-Text
Keywords: site selection; underground thermal energy storage systems; analytical hierarchy process (AHP); aquifer vulnerability; DRASTIC index; ArcMap/GIS software site selection; underground thermal energy storage systems; analytical hierarchy process (AHP); aquifer vulnerability; DRASTIC index; ArcMap/GIS software
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Madhlom, Q.; Al-Ansari, N.; Laue, J.; Nordell, B.; Hussain, H.M. Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions. Water 2019, 11, 1393.

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