Next Article in Journal
Assessing Groundwater Mineralization Process, Quality, and Isotopic Recharge Origin in the Sahel Region in Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Changes of Ecosystem Services in the Nansi Lake Wetland, China
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2019, 11(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040790

The Control of Groundwater Flow Systems and Geochemical Processes on Groundwater Chemistry: A Case Study in Wushenzhao Basin, NW China

1,2,3, 1,2,3,*, 4,5, 4,5, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 4,5 and 6
1
Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Institutions of Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
4
Xi’an Center of Geological Survey, China Geological Survey, Xi’an 710054, China
5
Key Laboratory for Groundwater and Ecology in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Xi’an Center of Geological Survey, China Geological Survey, Xi’an 710054, China
6
Mining Engineering and Geology College, Xinjiang Institute of Engineering, Wulumuqi 830023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
  |  
PDF [3635 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The lowest reaches of a large-scale basin could be the discharge areas of local, intermediate and regional groundwater flow systems with significantly distinct travel distances and travel times. This study aims to delineate the groundwater chemical characteristics and the mechanism controlling the chemical evolution in the lowest reaches of the Wushenzhao Cretaceous basin, NW China. A total of 38 groundwater samples were collected and were chemically classified into five distinct water types by means of a Piper Plot. According to the hydrogeological setting and groundwater age, the spatial distribution of these water types is found to be associated with hierarchically nested groundwater flow systems (local and regional system): Types 1, 2, 3 and 4 belong to the local groundwater flow system, while type 5 belongs to the regional flow system. Graphical plots, stable isotopes and geochemical modeling techniques were used to interpret the observed compositions. The results show the dominance of carbonate and gypsum dissolution in type 1 waters; ion exchange in types 2, 3 and 4; and evaporite dissolution in type 5. In addition, human activities in the form of extensive irrigation also affect the chemical compositions of type 1 water. These findings are important for the sustainable management of groundwater resources in the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: nested groundwater flow systems; radiocarbon; hydrochemical evolution; anthropogenic contamination nested groundwater flow systems; radiocarbon; hydrochemical evolution; anthropogenic contamination
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lyu, M.; Pang, Z.; Yin, L.; Zhang, J.; Huang, T.; Yang, S.; Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Gulbostan, T. The Control of Groundwater Flow Systems and Geochemical Processes on Groundwater Chemistry: A Case Study in Wushenzhao Basin, NW China. Water 2019, 11, 790.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top