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Conserving Rivers and Their Biodiversity in Tanzania

Department of Earth and Environment and Institute of Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Fair Water Futures Project, Shahidi wa Maji, P.O. Box 2527 Morogoro, Tanzania [email protected]
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam P.O. BOX 35091, Tanzania
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Solomon Mahlangu College of Science and Education, Sokoine University of Agriculture, UNESCO Chair on Ecohydrology and Transboundary Water Management, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro P.O. Box 3038, Tanzania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2612;
Received: 7 September 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 7 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
The United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania) is rich in freshwater resources and biodiversity. In this article, we highlight the importance of Tanzanian rivers and make a case for the conservation of the freshwater and terrestrial species that rely on these rivers. We provide an overview of current knowledge on Tanzanian rivers and discuss progress towards implementation of the National Water Policy (2002) and Water Management Act (2009), two legislative instruments that have motivated environmental flow assessments on at least six major rivers and offer legal backing for river conservation. We examine major challenges that pose significant threats to water security for river ecosystems and humans in Tanzania, among those: (1) human population growth, (2) agricultural expansion, (3) river flow alterations, (4) industrialization, (5) introduced species, and (6) climate change. We conclude by offering recommendations for future river conservation efforts in Tanzania. View Full-Text
Keywords: East Africa; freshwater; policy; tropical; environmental flows East Africa; freshwater; policy; tropical; environmental flows
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Seeteram, N.A.; Hyera, P.T.; Kaaya, L.T.; Lalika, M.C.S.; Anderson, E.P. Conserving Rivers and Their Biodiversity in Tanzania. Water 2019, 11, 2612.

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