Next Article in Journal
Influences of Plateau Zokor Burrowing on Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss in Alpine Meadows in the Yellow River Source Zone of West China
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial Distribution of Salinity and Sodicity in Arid Climate Following Long Term Brackish Water Drip Irrigated Olive Orchard
Previous Article in Journal
Regionalization of a Rainfall-Runoff Model: Limitations and Potentials
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water Resources Allocation Systems under Irrigation Expansion and Climate Change Scenario in Awash River Basin of Ethiopia
Open AccessArticle

Sustainable Water Use for International Agricultural Trade: The Case of Pakistan

School of Economics and Management, North China University of Technology, No. 5 Jinyuanzhuang Road, Beijing 100144, China
Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
China Center for Agricultural Policy, School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, Wangkezhen Building, Peking University, No.52 Haidian Road Haidian District, Beijing 100871, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2259;
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 4 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management for Sustainable Food Production)
Sustainable use of resources is critical, not only for people but for the whole planet. This is especially so for freshwater, which in many ways determines the food security and long-term development of nations. Here, we use virtual water trade to analyze the sustainability of water used by Pakistan in the international trade of 15 major agricultural commodities between 1990 and 2016 and in 2030. Most of the existing country-level studies on virtual water trade focused on net virtual water importers, which are usually water-scarce countries as well. This is the first study to concentrate on a water-stressed net virtual water-exporting country. Our results show that Pakistan has been trading large and ever-increasing volumes of virtual water through agricultural commodities. Despite the overall small net export of total virtual water per year, Pakistan has been a net-exporter of large quantities of blue (fresh) virtual water through its trade, even by fetching a lower value for each unit of blue water exported. Given Pakistan’s looming water scarcity, exporting large volumes of blue virtual water may constrain the country’s food security and long-term economic development. Improving water use efficiency for the current export commodities, for example, rice and exploring less water-intensive commodities, for example, fruits and vegetables, for export purposes can help Pakistan achieve sustainable water use in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; agriculture; virtual water trade; blue; green sustainability; agriculture; virtual water trade; blue; green
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, T.; Nadeem, A.M.; Riaz, M.F.; Xie, W. Sustainable Water Use for International Agricultural Trade: The Case of Pakistan. Water 2019, 11, 2259.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop