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Open AccessArticle

Phosphorus Budget for a Forested-Agricultural Watershed in Korea

Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Department of Environmental Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 17035, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Water 2019, 11(1), 4;
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Despite increased attention to the need for sustainable agriculture, fertilizer application rates above crop requirements remain common agricultural practices in South Korea, causing eutrophication of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. The aim of this study is to quantify phosphorus (P) inputs, outputs, and retention in a forested-agricultural watershed. The P budget showed that the combined use of chemical fertilizer and organic compost was the largest source of P (97.6% of the total) followed by atmospheric wet deposition (2.1% of the total P), whereas forest export (0.2% of the total) and sewage treatment plants (STPs) (0.1% of the total) were negligible. The P outputs were crop harvesting and hydrologic export to surface water. The P balance showed that P inputs are higher than the P outputs; approximately 87% of the total P input was retained in the soils within the watershed. However, P concentrations in drainage water were still high enough to cause eutrophication of downstream reservoirs. The results provide important details on the proportion of P export and retention in the watershed. This will help efforts to improve water quality and design better management strategies for agricultural nonpoint source pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; nutrient budget; nonpoint source pollution; Korea; monsoon climate phosphorus; nutrient budget; nonpoint source pollution; Korea; monsoon climate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reza, A.; Eum, J.; Jung, S.; Choi, Y.; Jang, C.; Kim, K.; Owen, J.S.; Kim, B. Phosphorus Budget for a Forested-Agricultural Watershed in Korea. Water 2019, 11, 4.

AMA Style

Reza A, Eum J, Jung S, Choi Y, Jang C, Kim K, Owen JS, Kim B. Phosphorus Budget for a Forested-Agricultural Watershed in Korea. Water. 2019; 11(1):4.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Jang, Changwon; Kim, Kiyong; Owen, Jeffrey S.; Kim, Bomchul. 2019. "Phosphorus Budget for a Forested-Agricultural Watershed in Korea" Water 11, no. 1: 4.

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